# EDUPUB

## IDPF Member Submission 2013-11-15

This document, the EDUPUB Content Model, provides a list of the elements, classes, and epub:types used to describe Educational Content. It is our first public draft and we expect to receive many suggestions for improvements. (Indeed, we are already working on the next release).

### Notes on This Release

We are aware of the following issues.

• EDUPUB's index spec is based on an IDPF Index draft that has since been revised. We will update the EDUPUB index spec to reflect the latest changes in the next release.

• The epub:type structured vocabulary has been updated since we drafted EDUPUB 1.0, adding some new epub:types that are not yet accounted for in this draft (e.g., heading-number, heading-label, assessment, learning-objective, learning-resource, outcome, practices, qna, and standard).

• The accessibility spec indicates header should not be used in in blockquote and figure elements. The EDUPUB spec 1.0 draft violates this rule by including header in figure elements. This will be addressed in the next EDUPUB release.

• Some content models have changed in the latest HTML 5.1 Nightly spec which are not reflected in this document. We will update the EDUPUB spec to reflect the latest changes in the next release. This will be an on going process.

• Blockquote attempts to make distinction between blockquote and blockquote class="extract". Next revision will likely collapse this distinction.

• some epub:type mapping needs to be refined (e.g., notice vs warning)

• some grouping classes are named group (e.g., index-group), some are named with an "s" (e.g., rearnotes), some are div (e.g., glossdiv), and some are set (e.g., objectiveset). We will look at reconciling this differences as much as possible. Class names are driven by corresponding epub:type names so sometimes the group names may diverge unless the epub structured vocabuluary changes.

• Spec refers to widgets and gadgets without fully defining their usage.

In addition, a few housekeeping issues:

• video and audio files referenced in the sample markup are not part of the distribution

• some late changes in content model have not been reflected in the documentation CSS, causing a few items to not render properly

• Although the spec indicates that image sizes are required on the img element, the actual underlying HTML5 for the rendered img samples does not contain them. (The syntax colored same code does show them however). This was intentional due to a CSS problem that we didn't have time to resolve before this release

• some items are referenced in the spec but are still under development so are not detailed in the Content Model. Full details to come in future release for:

• volume

• module

• card

• rendering notes

• multiple editions (e..g, student, instructor)

• QTI Mapping

### EDUPUB Baseline Spec

This document, the EDUPUB Content Model, should be read in conjunction with the EDUPUB Baseline Specification.

### Product Frontmatter

• Place epub:type="frontmatter" on body element if file exclusively contains book frontmatter content (e.g., halftitlepage, titlepage, copyright-page, preface, acknowledgments, book toc, etc)

• Distinguish frontmatter, bodymatter, and backmatter within part, chapter, and appendix sections. frontmatter sections in parts, chapters, and appendices typically contain:

• epigraph
• opening art
• introduction
• vignette
• objective lists
• keyword lists

### seriespage

Marketing section used by the publisher to list related publications.

#### Content Model

seriespage is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires class="seriespage"
• no corresponding epub:type
• section cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements

#### Design Notes

Beyond requiring the seriespage class, the spec does not indicate how a series on a seriespage must be marked up: as a ul, ol, series of p's, etc.

# Series Page Section

• Human Communication Disorders: An Introduction , 8e, Noma B. Anderson and George H. Shames, © 2011, ISBN 0137061331

• Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology: From Concepts to Transcription , Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler, © 2009, ISBN 0205402879

• The Development of Language , 7e, Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner, © 2009, ISBN 0205593038

• Language and Communication Disorders in Children , 6e, Deena K. Bernstein and Ellenmorris Tiegerman-Farber, © 2009, ISBN 0205584616

• Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Speech Sound Disorders in Children , 6e, John E. Bernthal, Nicholas W. Bankson, and Peter Flipsen, Jr., © 2009, ISBN 0205569269

<section class="seriespage">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Series Page Section</h1>
<ul class="nomark">  <li><p>
<strong>Human Communication Disorders: An Introduction</strong>
, 8e, Noma B. Anderson and George H. Shames, © 2011, ISBN 0137061331
</p></li>
<li><p>
<strong>Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology: From Concepts to Transcription</strong>
, Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler, © 2009, ISBN 0205402879
</p></li>
<li><p>
<strong>The Development of Language</strong>
, 7e, Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner, © 2009, ISBN 0205593038
</p></li>
<li><p>
<strong>Language and Communication Disorders in Children</strong>
, 6e, Deena K. Bernstein and Ellenmorris Tiegerman-Farber, © 2009, ISBN 0205584616
</p></li>
<li><p>
<strong>Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Speech Sound Disorders in Children</strong>
, 6e, John E. Bernthal, Nicholas W. Bankson, and Peter Flipsen, Jr., © 2009, ISBN 0205569269
</p></li>
</ul>
</section>

Section that contains one or more aboutauthor author profiles. It is typically labeled "About the Author".

#### Content Model

• requires one or more section class="aboutauthor" instances as children
• no corresponding epub:type
• section cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements

#### Usage

Section title of "aboutauthor" is typically the author's name

# Carey Cole

is a lecturer in the Computer Information Systems and Management Science department in the College of Business at James Madison University in Harrisonburg Virginia since 2000. He has been teaching faculty and students on how to use SharePoint for more than two years and he has directly taught over 700 students the essentials of using SharePoint. In addition, he has supported over 50 professors, from various schools across the United States, in their efforts to learn and teach SharePoint. He has helped to support Pearson’s SharePoint sponsored sites for the past two years (refer to the supplement section above). He is married and has two sons. When not teaching or working, he likes to travel and play golf.

# Steve Fox

is a Sr. Technical Manager at Microsoft. He’s been working in the IT industry for over fifteen years. Steve has authored many articles and books on various technical subjects, ranging from SAP and .NET development to SharePoint and Office development. He earned his doctorate from the University of Washington and lectures both domestically and internationally. He lives in Seattle with his wife and enjoys sports, movies and writing.

# David Kroenke

is the leading author of MIS textbooks, worldwide. His database textbook, now co-authored with David Auer, is in its 11th edition, and has been continuously published since 1977. He is also the author of Using MIS, Experiencing MIS, and MIS Essentials. He has taught at Colorado State University, the University of Washington, and Seattle University. In 2009, he was selected Educator of the Year by ISECON. He lives on Whidbey Island; is married and has two children and three grandchildren. He enjoys woodworking and his wife tells him he enjoys gardening as well.


<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">About the Authors</span></h1>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Carey Cole</h1>
<p>is a lecturer in the Computer Information Systems and Management Science department in the College of Business at James Madison University in Harrisonburg Virginia since 2000. He has been teaching faculty and students on how to use SharePoint for more than two years and he has directly taught over 700 students the essentials of using SharePoint. In addition, he has supported over 50 professors, from various schools across the United States, in their efforts to learn and teach SharePoint. He has helped to support Pearson’s SharePoint sponsored sites for the past two years (refer to the supplement section above). He is married and has two sons. When not teaching or working, he likes to travel and play golf.</p>
</section>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Steve Fox</h1>
<p>is a Sr. Technical Manager at Microsoft. He’s been working in the IT industry for over fifteen years. Steve has authored many articles and books on various technical subjects, ranging from SAP and .NET development to SharePoint and Office development. He earned his doctorate from the University of Washington and lectures both domestically and internationally. He lives in Seattle with his wife and enjoys sports, movies and writing.</p>
</section>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">David Kroenke</h1>
<p>is the leading author of MIS textbooks, worldwide. His database textbook, now co-authored with David Auer, is in its 11<sup>th</sup> edition, and has been continuously published since 1977. He is also the author of <span class="emphasis">Using MIS, Experiencing MIS,</span> and <span class="emphasis">MIS Essentials.</span> He has taught at Colorado State University, the University of Washington, and Seattle University. In 2009, he was selected Educator of the Year by ISECON. He lives on Whidbey Island; is married and has two children and three grandchildren. He enjoys woodworking and his wife tells him he enjoys gardening as well.</p>
</section>
</section>



### dedication

Dedication section contains a tribute or acknowledgment to someone by the author

#### Content Model

Dedication is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="dedication epub:type="dedication"
• Each dedication receives its own dedication section
• Multiple dedications should be wrapped inside larger section class="dedicationset"
• If there is a shared title above both dedications, the title belongs to a dedicationset section that wraps around all dedication sections. for single dedication dedicationset section wrapper not required
• If dedication includes author of dedication, authorgroup tagging may be applied but is optional depending on formatting needs
• section cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements

# Dedications

To Becky, Morgan, and Forrest (B) from Carey Cole

To Nicole from Steve Fox

To Lynda from David M. Kroenke


<section class="dedicationset" id="dedication">
<section class="dedication" id="dedi3" epub:type="dedication"><p>To Becky, Morgan, and Forrest (B) from Carey Cole</p></section>
<section class="dedication" id="dedi2" epub:type="dedication"><p>To Nicole from Steve Fox</p></section>
<section class="dedication" id="dedi1" epub:type="dedication"><p>To Lynda from David M. Kroenke</p></section></section>



### halftitlepage

halftitlepage section is block level content and contains product title only, no author information

#### Content Model

halftitlepage is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="halftitlepage" epub:type="halftitlepage"
• halftitlepage is optional
• when present, halftitlepage section must precede the titlepage
• title on halftitlepage requires epub:type="halftitle"

# Microeconomics

TENTH EDITION


<section id="halftitlepage" class="halftitlepage" epub:type="halftitlepage">
<div class="edition"><p>TENTH EDITION</p></div></section>



### titlepage

titlepage is block-level section that contains product title and author information

#### Content Model

titlepage is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="titlepage" epub:type="titlepage"
• title on titlepage requires epub:type="title"
• when halftitlepage present, titlepage must follow the halftitlepage. (It does not need to immediately precede halftitlepage)
• titlepage must contain at least the product title and author information
##### Key Structures
• div class="edition"
• div class="authorgroup". See Author-Related Structures for details
• div class="publisher", contains:
• div class="publisherlocation"
• div class="publishername"

# Technology in Action

8th Edition

Prentice Hall

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo


<section id="titlepage" class="titlepage" epub:type="titlepage">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="pagebreak" epub:type="pagebreak" title="i" id="pagei" />Technology in Action</h1>
<div class="edition"><p>8th Edition</p></div>
<div class="authorgroup">
<div class="author"><div class="name"><p>Alan Evans</p></div></div>
<div class="author"><div class="name"><p>Kendall Martin</p></div></div>
<div class="author"><div class="name"><p>Mary Anne Poatsy</p></div></div>
</div>
<div class="publisher"><div class="publishername"><p><strong>Prentice Hall</strong></p></div>
<div class="publisherlocation"><p>Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo</p></div></div>
</section>



#### Content Model

• Standard TOC. class="toc" epub:type="toc"
• Brief TOC. class="toc toc_brief" epub:type="toc"
• List of Illustrations. class="loi" epub:type="loi"
• List of tables. class="lot" epub:type="lot"
• List of pages. class="page-list" epub:type="page-list"
• Landmarks. class="landmarks" epub:type="landmarks"
• Alternative TOC. class="toc toc_alternative" epub:type="toc"
##### TOC Divisions

Each nav must have one or more classed divs, based on what part of the product the toc is referencing. TOC structures are hierarchal so the toc div classes follow:

• div class="tocproductfrontmatter"
• div class="tocproductbodymatter"
• div class="tocpartfrontmatter"
• div class="tocpartbodymatter"
• div class="tocchapterfrontmatter"
• div class="tocchapterbodymatter"
• div class="tocchapterbackmatter"
• div class="tocpartbackmatter"
• div class="tocproductbackmatter"

Each div contains one ol class="tocentrylist".

Each ol class="tocentrylist" contains one or more li children. Each tocentrylist li must have a class value, where the class value describes what the li is referencing. For example, li class="tocpart" indicates the hyperlink in the li references a section class="part". When no semantic tag applies, use toclevel1-toclevel6:

• tocappendix
• tocbibliography
• tocchapter
• tocconclusion
• toccreditset
• tocrearnotes
• tocglossary
• tocintroduction
• tockeywordset
• toclevel1
• toclevel2
• toclevel3
• toclevel4
• tocname-index
• tocobjectiveset
• tocpart
• tocpractice
• tocpreface
• tocsidebar
• tocsubject-index


<nav id="PX_P001_0000000000000000000009" class="toc" epub:type="toc"><header><h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span id="PX_P001_000000000000000000000A" class="pagebreak" epub:type="pagebreak" title="viii" /><span class="label">Contents</span></h1></header>
<div class="tocproductbodymatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="tocpart"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000002D"><span class="title"><span class="label">Part </span><span class="number">I. </span>An Introduction to Educational Research </span> <span class="pageref">1</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="tocchapter"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000030"><span class="title"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span class="number">1. </span>The Process of Conducting Research Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches</span> <span class="pageref">2</span></a></p>
<div class="tocchapterbodymatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000003C"><span class="title">A Definition of Research and Its Importance</span> <span class="pageref">3</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000003D"><span class="title">Research Adds to Our Knowledge</span> <span class="pageref">4</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000003F"><span class="title"> Research Improves Practice</span> <span class="pageref">4</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000044"><span class="title"> Research Informs Policy Debates</span> <span class="pageref">6</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000045"><span class="title"> Several Problems with Research Today</span> <span class="pageref">6</span></a></p></li>
</ol></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000047"><span class="title">The Six Steps in the Process of Research</span> <span class="pageref">7</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000049"><span class="title">Identifying a Research Problem</span> <span class="pageref">8</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000004B"><span class="title">Reviewing the Literature</span> <span class="pageref">8</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000004D"><span class="title">Specifying a Purpose for Research</span> <span class="pageref">9</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000004E"><span class="title">Collecting Data</span> <span class="pageref">9</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000050"><span class="title">Analyzing and Interpreting the Data</span> <span class="pageref">10</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000051"><span class="title">Reporting and Evaluating Research</span> <span class="pageref">10</span></a></p></li>
</ol></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000053"><span class="title">The Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Each of the Six Steps</span> <span class="pageref">11</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000056"><span class="title">Quantitative Research Characteristics</span> <span class="pageref">13</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000005B"><span class="title"> Qualitative Research Characteristics</span> <span class="pageref">16</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000005F"><span class="title"> Similarities and Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research</span> <span class="pageref">19</span></a></p></li>
</ol></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000061"><span class="title">Research Designs Associated with Quantitative and Qualitative Research</span> <span class="pageref">20</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000006D"><span class="title">Important Ethical Issues in Conducting Research</span> <span class="pageref">22</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000006E"><span class="title">Institutional Review Boards</span> <span class="pageref">22</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000070"><span class="title">Professional Associations</span> <span class="pageref">23</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000071"><span class="title">Ethical Practices throughout the Research Process</span> <span class="pageref">23</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000072"><span class="title">Some Ethical Issues in Data Collection</span> <span class="pageref">23</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000074"><span class="title">Some Ethical Issues in Data Reporting</span> <span class="pageref">24</span></a></p></li>
</ol></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000075"><span class="title">Skills Needed to Design and Conduct Research</span> <span class="pageref">24</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000076"><span class="title">Solving Puzzles</span> <span class="pageref">25</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000078"><span class="title">Lengthening Your Attention Span</span> <span class="pageref">25</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000079"><span class="title">Learning to Use Library Resources</span> <span class="pageref">25</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000007A"><span class="title">Writing, Editing, and More Writing</span> <span class="pageref">25</span></a></p></li>
</ol></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000007C"><span class="title">The Definition and Importance of Educational Research</span> <span class="pageref">26</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000007E"><span class="title">The Six Steps in the Process of Research</span> <span class="pageref">26</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000007F"><span class="title">The Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research</span> <span class="pageref">26</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000080"><span class="title">The Types of Research Designs Associated with Quantitative and Qualitative Research</span> <span class="pageref">26</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000082"><span class="title">The Important Ethical Issues</span> <span class="pageref">27</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000083"><span class="title"> The Skills Needed to Design and Conduct Research</span> <span class="pageref">27</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000007B"><span class="title">Key Ideas in the Chapter</span> <span class="pageref">26</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000084"><span class="title">Useful Information for Producers of Research</span> <span class="pageref">27</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000085"><span class="title">Useful Information for Consumers of Research</span> <span class="pageref">27</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000087"><span class="title">Understanding Concepts and Evaluating Research Studies</span> <span class="pageref">28</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_000000000000000000008A"><span class="title">Sample Quantitative Study</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="M01_CRES7395_04_SE_C01.xhtml#PX_P001_00000000000000000000FE"><span class="title">Sample Qualitative Study</span></a></p></li>
</ol></div></li>
</ol></li>
</ol></div>
<div class="tocproductbackmatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="tocappendix"><p><a href="Z01_CRES7395_04_SE_APPA.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AC3"><span class="title">Appendices</span> <span class="pageref">603</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist"><li class="tocappendix"><p><a href="Z01_CRES7395_04_SE_APPA.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AC7"><span class="title">Appendix</span> <span class="title"><span class="number">A. </span>Answers to the Chapter Study Questions</span> <span class="pageref">605</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocappendix"><p><a href="Z02_CRES7395_04_SE_APPB.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AD9"><span class="title">Appendix</span> <span class="title"><span class="number">B. </span>Determine Size Using Sample Size Tables</span> <span class="pageref">609</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocappendix"><p><a href="Z03_CRES7395_04_SE_APPC.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AE3"><span class="title">Appendix</span> <span class="title"><span class="number">C. </span>Commonly Used Statistics in Educational Research</span> <span class="pageref">613</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocappendix"><p><a href="Z04_CRES7395_04_SE_APPD.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AE7"><span class="title">Appendix</span> <span class="title"><span class="number">D. </span>Nonnormal Distribution</span> <span class="pageref">614</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocappendix"><p><a href="Z05_CRES7395_04_SE_APPE.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AEA"><span class="title">Appendix</span> <span class="title"><span class="number">E. </span>Strategies for Defending a Research Proposal</span> <span class="pageref">615</span></a></p></li>
</ol></li>
<li class="tocglossary"><p><a href="Z06_CRES7395_04_SE_GLOS.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000AF0"><span class="title">Glossary</span> <span class="pageref">617</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="Z07_CRES7395_04_SE_REF.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000C9C"><span class="title">References</span> <span class="pageref">631</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="Z08_CRES7395_04_SE_AIDX.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000E1B"><span class="title">Author Index</span> <span class="pageref">639</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="Z09_CRES7395_04_SE_SIDX.xhtml#PX_P001_0000000000000000000FC8"><span class="title">Subject Index</span> <span class="pageref">643</span></a></p></li></ol></div>
</nav>



<nav id="toc" class="toc" epub:type="toc">
<div class="tocchapterfrontmatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec1"><span class="title">Making your own luck </span><span class="pageref">137</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</div>
<div class="tocchapterbodymatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec1"><span class="title">Purposes of the Literature Review </span><span class="pageref">138</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec2"><span class="title">Use of the Library </span><span class="pageref">138</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec3"><span class="title">Primary and Secondary Sources </span><span class="pageref">139</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec4"><span class="title">Grey Literature </span><span class="pageref">140</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec5"><span class="title">Print Sources </span><span class="pageref">140</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec6"><span class="title">Electronic Sources </span><span class="pageref">141</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel2"><p><a href="#ch06lev2sec1"><span class="title">Online Catalogs </span><span class="pageref">142</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel2"><p><a href="#ch06lev2sec2"><span class="title">Online Databases </span><span class="pageref">143</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocsidebar"><p><a href="#ch06lev2sec2sidebar01"><span class="title">Online Databases </span><span class="pageref">145</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec1"><span class="title">CINAHL Databases </span><span class="pageref">146</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec1"><span class="title">CINAHL® Database </span><span class="pageref">147</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec2"><span class="title">CINAHL® Plus </span><span class="pageref">148</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec3"><span class="title">CINAHL® with Full Text </span><span class="pageref">149</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec4"><span class="title">CINAHL® Plus with Full Text </span><span class="pageref">150</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec2"><span class="title">Registry of Nursing Research</span><span class="pageref">151</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec3"><span class="title">MEDLINE Databases</span><span class="pageref">152</span></a></p>
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec5"><span class="title">MEDLINE®</span><span class="pageref">153</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec6"><span class="title">MEDLINE® with Full Text</span><span class="pageref">155</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel4"><p><a href="#ch06lev4sec7"><span class="title">Medline® Plus</span><span class="pageref">155</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec4"><span class="title">Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews</span><span class="pageref">157</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec5"><span class="title">ERIC</span><span class="pageref">158</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec6"><span class="title">PsycINFO</span><span class="pageref">159</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec7"><span class="title">Dissertation Abstracts Online</span><span class="pageref">160</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec8"><span class="title">ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source™</span><span class="pageref">161</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel3"><p><a href="#ch06lev3sec9"><span class="title">Other Online Databases</span><span class="pageref">162</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</li>
<li class="toclevel2"><p><a href="#ch06lev2sec3"><span class="title">Online Journals</span><span class="pageref">162</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec7"><span class="title">Obtaining Information From Literature Sources </span><span class="pageref">163</span></a></p></li>
<li class="toclevel1"><p><a href="#ch06lev1sec8"><span class="title">Critiquing the Literature Review Section of Research Articles: </span><span class="subtitle">The Next Wave </span><span class="pageref">164</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</div>
<div class="tocchapterbackmatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="tocconclusion"><p><a href="#ch06sum01"><span class="title">Summary</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocbibliography"><p><a href="#ch06bib01"><span class="title">Nursing Research on the Web</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocpractice"><p><a href="#ch06probset01"><span class="title">Get Involved Activities</span></a></p></li>
<li class="tocpractice"><p><a href="#ch06probset02"><span class="title">Self-Test</span></a></p></li>
</ol>
</div>
</nav>



### preface

Introductory section that positions the product for its intended reading audience. It is located in the product frontmatter.

#### Content Model

Preface is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="preface" epub:type="preface"
• body element requires epub:type="frontmatter"

# Preface

Microsoft SharePoint is widely used in business and industry. According to J. Nicholas Hoover1, Microsoft has sold more than 100 million SharePoint licenses since 2001. Microsoft states that 2007 sales of SharePoint exceeded $800,000,000, netting a growth rate of 35% over the prior year. More recently, Microsoft’s General Manager Eric Swift announced at a recent conference that SharePoint sales are now in excess of US$1.3B, and 300 Microsoft ‘early adopter’ partners are getting engaged and building solutions on SharePoint 2010. This number is sure to increase as the thousands of Microsoft partners and customers that are already leveraging SharePoint today move to SharePoint 2010.

This success means that thousands of companies have adopted SharePoint as their primary collaboration tool. That fact means, in turn, that hundreds of thousands of employees, worldwide, need SharePoint skills. This book addresses that need.

# Purpose of This Book

This primary purpose of this book is to teach business students the fundamental SharePoint concepts and skills needed to successfully collaborate and solve business problems. This is not a technical book and it is not intended to teach SharePoint administration nor software development in the SharePoint environment. Instead, this text provides the student a quick introduction to SharePoint concepts and teaches practical skills for using SharePoint in student teams.

This text can be used as a companion text for the Introduction to MIS course. It could also be used in other courses that involve substantial collaboration such as business strategy, marketing, management, and other courses. We see the principal use of this text in the College of Business, but it could be used in other colleges as well. The text could be used in a lab course that teaches SharePoint in conjunction with Microsoft Office applications.

# Why Use Share Point?

The reasons that students should learn SharePoint fall into two primary categories as discussed in Chapter 1. First, SharePoint provides a robust set of tools for collaboration. Many of these tools can be found in other products, but only as separate tools. Students must learn a different set of skills with each tool. SharePoint provides a wide set of collaboration tools in a single product, with a consistent and readily understood user interface. SharePoint can be used to facilitate student projects, tonight!

Second, SharePoint skills are highly marketable. Because of SharePoint’s success, many organizations actively seek students with SharePoint skills. Such skills can provide an important competitive advantage to graduates in today’s difficult job market. Please see Chapter 1 for more about the importance of SharePoint to students.

SharePoint has advantages for teachers as well. We have used SharePoint in our classrooms and have found that SharePoint provides a perspective into student work that we’ve not had before. As an industrial-strength collaboration tool, SharePoint tracks user activity: who has done what to which documents and files, and when. Using SharePoint, professors can access this tracking data to determine which students are actively involved in student projects, and which are not. Furthermore, we need not wait until the project is over to make this determination. We can examine student group sites as work is in progress and provide intermediate feedback in ways that have not been possible before.

# Which Version of SharePoint?

Microsoft has released several different versions of SharePoint. The two most important versions today are SharePoint 2007 and SharePoint 2010. Basic SharePoint services for both of these versions are included in the Windows Server operating system or as free downloads and do not require the purchase of any additional license from Microsoft. More advanced features are available in SharePoint 2007 Microsoft Office SharePoint Services (MOSS) and SharePoint Server 2010. These latter two products do require the purchase of additional licenses.

We believe that students can learn the basic SharePoint skills they need to collaborate in school and to succeed in business using the simpler versions of SharePoint that are included in Windows Server; that is, SharePoint Foundation. Accordingly, this text teaches and illustrates basic SharePoint Services. We do not discuss MOSS nor SharePoint Server 2010 in depth (we do discuss some of the business intelligence features of SharePoint Server 2010). Furthermore, the discussion and screenshots in this text are based upon SharePoint 2010. However, you can apply a lot of the knowledge learned in this book to SharePoint 2007.

# Pedagogy

Each chapter includes two modules provided at the end of the chapter that are divided into two types:

1. Class assignments: these exercises are targeted toward something that is useful for the classroom such as using a Wiki to work together as a group to define Collaboration.

2. Applied business assignments: these exercises are targeted toward something that will be useful in the business world such as using a Wiki to work together to a project plan

A goal of this book is to encourage students to go beyond what is offered in these pages and explore SharePoint in a variety of the other ways for which it was designed. Once the students understand how to collaborate and use SharePoint, the possibility exists that they will want to create their own study groups and study guides. They will find ways to use SharePoint on their own outside of a specific class assignment.


<section id="preface" class="preface" epub:type="preface">
<h1 id="pre01_title" class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="pagebreak" epub:type="pagebreak" title="ix" id="pageix" /><span class="label">Preface </span></h1>
<p>Microsoft SharePoint is widely used in business and industry. According to J. Nicholas Hoover<sup><a class="noteref noteref_footnote" epub:type="noteref" id="ich00_fm06_pre_fn01" href="A01_CARE0095_00_AIE_FM01.xhtml#ch00_fm06_pre_fn01"><span class="number">1</span></a></sup>, Microsoft has sold more than 100 million SharePoint licenses since 2001. Microsoft states that 2007 sales of SharePoint exceeded $800,000,000, netting a growth rate of 35% over the prior year. More recently, Microsoft’s General Manager Eric Swift announced at a recent conference that SharePoint sales are now in excess of US$1.3B, and 300 Microsoft ‘early adopter’ partners are getting engaged and building solutions on SharePoint 2010. This number is sure to increase as the thousands of Microsoft partners and customers that are already leveraging SharePoint today move to SharePoint 2010.</p>
<p>This success means that thousands of companies have adopted SharePoint as their primary collaboration tool. That fact means, in turn, that hundreds of thousands of employees, worldwide, need SharePoint skills. This book addresses that need.</p>
<section id="preflev1sec1">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title" id="preflev1sec1_title">Purpose of This Book</h1>
<p>This primary purpose of this book is to teach business students the fundamental SharePoint concepts and skills needed to successfully collaborate and solve business problems. This is not a technical book and it is not intended to teach SharePoint administration nor software development in the SharePoint environment. Instead, this text provides the student a quick introduction to SharePoint concepts and teaches practical skills for using SharePoint in student teams.</p>
<p>This text can be used as a companion text for the Introduction to MIS course. It could also be used in other courses that involve substantial collaboration such as business strategy, marketing, management, and other courses. We see the principal use of this text in the College of Business, but it could be used in other colleges as well. The text could be used in a lab course that teaches SharePoint in conjunction with Microsoft Office applications.</p>
</section>
<section id="preflev1sec2">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title" id="preflev1sec2_title">Why Use Share Point?</h1>
<p>The reasons that students should learn SharePoint fall into two primary categories as discussed in <a class="xref" href="M01_CARE0095_00_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span class="number">1</span></a>. First, SharePoint provides a robust set of tools for collaboration. Many of these tools can be found in other products, but only as separate tools. Students must learn a different set of skills with each tool. SharePoint provides a wide set of collaboration tools in a single product, with a consistent and readily understood user interface. SharePoint can be used to facilitate student projects, tonight!</p>
<p>Second, SharePoint skills are highly marketable. Because of SharePoint’s success, many organizations actively seek students with SharePoint skills. Such skills can provide an important competitive advantage to graduates in today’s difficult job market. Please see <a class="xref" href="M01_CARE0095_00_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span class="number">1</span></a> for more about the importance of SharePoint to students.</p>
<p>SharePoint has advantages for teachers as well. We have used SharePoint in our classrooms and have found that SharePoint provides a perspective into student work that we’ve <span class="pagebreak" epub:type="pagebreak" title="x" id="pagex" />not had before. As an industrial-strength collaboration tool, SharePoint tracks user activity: <span class="emphasis">who has done what to which documents and files, and when</span>. Using SharePoint, professors can access this tracking data to determine which students are actively involved in student projects, and which are not. Furthermore, we need not wait until the project is over to make this determination. We can examine student group sites as work is in progress and provide intermediate feedback in ways that have not been possible before.</p>
</section>
<section id="preflev1sec3">
<h1 id="preflev1sec3_title" class="title" epub:type="title">Which Version of SharePoint?</h1>
<p>Microsoft has released several different versions of SharePoint. The two most important versions today are SharePoint 2007 and SharePoint 2010. Basic SharePoint services for both of these versions are included in the Windows Server operating system or as free downloads and do not require the purchase of any additional license from Microsoft. More advanced features are available in SharePoint 2007 Microsoft Office SharePoint Services (MOSS) and SharePoint Server 2010. These latter two products do require the purchase of additional licenses.</p>
<p>We believe that students can learn the basic SharePoint skills they need to collaborate in school and to succeed in business using the simpler versions of SharePoint that are included in Windows Server; that is, SharePoint Foundation. Accordingly, this text teaches and illustrates basic SharePoint Services. We do not discuss MOSS nor SharePoint Server 2010 in depth (we do discuss some of the business intelligence features of SharePoint Server 2010). Furthermore, the discussion and screenshots in this text are based upon SharePoint 2010. However, you can apply a lot of the knowledge learned in this book to SharePoint 2007.</p>
</section>
<section id="preflev1sec4">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title" id="preflev1sec4_title">Pedagogy</h1>
<p>Each chapter includes two modules provided at the end of the chapter that are divided into two types:</p>
<ol>
<li><p>Class assignments: these exercises are targeted toward something that is useful for the classroom such as using a Wiki to work together as a group to define Collaboration.</p></li>
<li><p>Applied business assignments: these exercises are targeted toward something that will be useful in the business world such as using a Wiki to work together to a project plan</p></li>
</ol>
<p>A goal of this book is to encourage students to go beyond what is offered in these pages and explore SharePoint in a variety of the other ways for which it was designed. Once the students understand how to collaborate and use SharePoint, the possibility exists that they will want to create their own study groups and study guides. They will find ways to use SharePoint on their own outside of a specific class assignment.</p>
</section>
</section>



### acknowledgments

Block level section that contains an author's "acknowledgments" to people who have helped contribute to the success of the product-reviewers, colleagues, etc. It often contains an un-numbered list of reviewers and their affiliations.

##### Content Model

acknowledgments is a section with the following requirements:

• requires class="acknowledgements" epub:type="acknowledgements"
• acknowledgments is restricted to appearing as a descendant of the product frontmatter. it typically appears as either a child of the preface section or as a sibling to the preface section.

# Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the following teachers for the use of their classrooms in validating strategies and for their ongoing implementation of the strategies in support of their students.

1. Susan McCloskey, K–1 teacher, Viking Elementary School, Fresno, California

2. Vince Workmon, fourth-/fifth-grade teacher, Muir Elementary School, Fresno, California

3. Scott Benning, primary literacy coach, Greenberg Elementary School, Fresno, California

4. David Reynolds, 10th-grade English teacher, Avenal High School, Avenal, California

5. Diana Bateman, kindergarten teacher, Imperial Estates Elementary School, Titusville, Florida

6. Jennifer Bateman, second-grade teacher, Blackburn Elementary School, Dahlonega, Georgia

7. Teachers at Rosa Parks Elementary School, Clark Middle School, and Hoover High School—San Diego, California

8. Teachers at Tanaina Elementary School—Wasilla, Alaska

9. We appreciate the comments and suggestions of the following individuals who reviewed the manuscript:

10. Kathryn M. Ciechanowski, Oregon State University

11. Louise Lockard, Northern Arizona University

12. Judy Geller-Marlowe, New York University and

13. Marilyn Steele, UCLA.


<section id="acknowledgments" epub:type="acknowledgments" class="acknowledgments">
<h1 id="prefacelev1sec5_title" class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Acknowledgments</span></h1>
<p>We wish to thank the following teachers for the use of their classrooms in validating strategies and for their ongoing implementation of the strategies in support of their students.</p>
<ol class="nomark">
<li><p>Susan McCloskey, K–1 teacher, Viking Elementary School, Fresno, California</p></li>
<li><p>Vince Workmon, fourth-/fifth-grade teacher, Muir Elementary School, Fresno, California</p></li>
<li><p>Scott Benning, primary literacy coach, Greenberg Elementary School, Fresno, California</p></li>
<li><p>David Reynolds, 10th-grade English teacher, Avenal High School, Avenal, California</p></li>
<li><p>Diana Bateman, kindergarten teacher, Imperial Estates Elementary School, Titusville, Florida</p></li>
<li><p>Jennifer Bateman, second-grade teacher, Blackburn Elementary School, Dahlonega, Georgia</p></li>
<li><p>Teachers at Rosa Parks Elementary School, Clark Middle School, and Hoover High School—San Diego, California</p></li>
<li><p>Teachers at Tanaina Elementary School—Wasilla, Alaska</p></li>
<li><p>We appreciate the comments and suggestions of the following individuals who reviewed the manuscript:</p></li>
<li><p>Kathryn M. Ciechanowski, Oregon State University</p></li>
<li><p>Louise Lockard, Northern Arizona University</p></li>
<li><p>Judy Geller-Marlowe, New York University and</p></li>
<li><p>Marilyn Steele, UCLA.</p></li>
</ol>

</section>



### Product Bodymatter

bodymatter at the product level includes:

• parts
• chapters

Place epub:type="bodymatter" on HTML5 body element if file exclusively contains book bodymatter content (e.g., part, chapter).

bodymatter is also used as a required class within parts, chapters, and appendixes. It contains the main sections of content. It is distinct from the optional frontmatter, which contains items such as table of contents and learning objectives. It is distinct from the optional backmatter, which contains content such as conclusion, review questions, rearnotes, keyword lists, and bibliography.

### part

Part is a major structural division of a product, typically encapsulating a set of related chapters.

#### Content Model

Part is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="part" epub:type="part" attribute
• ancestor body element must have epub:type="bodymatter" attribute

Although parts are thought of as containing chapters, the content model does not require that chapters be contained in parts.

# Part 2 Information Technology

The next three chapters address the technology that underlies information systems. You may think that such technology is unimportant to you as a business professional. However, as you will see at FlexTime, today’s managers and business professionals work with information technology all the time, at least as consumers, if not in a more involved way.

Chapter 4 discusses hardware and software and defines basic terms and fundamental computing concepts. You will see that Neil and Kelly have important decisions to make about the next version of software that they will use to run their business.

Chapter 5 addresses the data component of information technology by describing database processing. You will learn essential database terminology and be introduced to techniques for processing databases. We will also introduce data modeling, because you may be required to evaluate data models for databases that others develop for you. At FlexTime, Neil will use a database to analyze the cost-saving alternatives the team identified in Chapter 3.


<body epub:type="bodymatter">
<section class="part" id="part" epub:type="part"><header><h1 id="Part02.title" class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Part </span><span class="number">2 </span>Information Technology</h1></header>
<section class="introduction" id="introduction.578">
<p>The next three chapters address the technology that underlies information systems. You may think that such technology is unimportant to you as a business professional. However, as you will see at FlexTime, today’s managers and business professionals work with information technology all the time, at least as consumers, if not in a more involved way.</p>
<p><a href="#ch04" class="xref"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span>4</span></a> discusses hardware and software and defines basic terms and fundamental computing concepts. You will see that Neil and Kelly have important decisions to make about the next version of software that they will use to run their business.</p>
<p><a href="M05_KROE7940_03_SE_C05.xhtml#ch05" class="xref"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span>5 </span></a>addresses the data component of information technology by describing database processing. You will learn essential database terminology and be introduced to techniques for processing databases. We will also introduce data modeling, because you may be required to evaluate data models for databases that others develop for you. At FlexTime, Neil will use a database to analyze the cost-saving alternatives the team identified in <a href="M03_KROE7940_03_SE_C03.xhtml#ch03" class="xref"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span>3</span></a>.</p></section></section></body>



### chapter

#### Content Model

Chapter is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="chapter" epub:type="chapter"
• ancestor body element must have epub:type="bodymatter" attribute

Note: When chapter acts as introductory chapter to book, use epub:type="introduction", not epub:type="chapter"

The only valid children for section class="chapter"  are, in the following order:

• header/h1 as first child of chapter
• div class="authorgroup" (optional)
• section class="frontmatter" (optional), which must precede the section class="bodymatter"
• section class="bodymatter" (required)
• section class="backmatter" (optional)
• if present, it must follow section class="bodymatter"

# Chapter 9 Summarizing Research Findings and Other Information

...
...

<section class="chapter" epub:type="chapter" id="ch09">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title" id="ch09_title"><span class="pagebreak" title="173" epub:type="pagebreak" id="page173" /><span class="label">Chapter</span> <span class="number">9 </span>Summarizing Research Findings and Other Information</h1>

<section class="frontmatter" id="d6e30888">
<nav class="toc" epub:type="toc" id="tocd1e28etm_se_ch09">
<div class="tocchapterbodymatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel1">
<p><a href="#ch09lev1sec1"><span class="title">Considering Audience and Purpose</span></a></p>
</li>

<li class="toclevel1">
<p><a href="#ch09lev1sec2"><span class="title">What Readers Expect from a Summary</span></a></p>

<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel2">
<p><a href="#ch09sb01"><span class="title"><strong>Guidelines</strong> for Summarizing Information</span></a></p>
</li>
</ol>
</li>

<li class="toclevel1">
<p><a href="#ch09lev1sec3"><span class="title">A Situation Requiring a Summary</span></a></p>
</li>

<li class="toclevel1">
<p><a href="#ch09lev1sec4"><span class="title">Special Types of Summaries</span></a></p>
</li>

<li class="toclevel1">
<p><a href="#ch09lev1sec5"><span class="title">Ethical and Global Considerations in Summarizing Information</span></a></p>

<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel2">
<p><a href="#ch09sb02"><span class="label">Checklist: Summaries</span></a></p>
</li>
</ol>
</li>
</ol>
</div>

<div class="tocchapterbackmatter">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel1">
<ol class="tocentrylist">
<li class="toclevel2">
<p><a href="#ch09ps02"><span class="title">Projects</span></a></p>
</li>
</ol>
</li>
</ol>
</div>
</nav>
</section>
<section class="bodymatter">...  </section>
<section class="backmatter">...  </section>
</section>



### Product Backmatter

Place epub:type="backmatter" on HTML5 body element if file exclusively contains book backmatter content (e.g., appendix, bibliography, index). See also frontmatter and bodymatter.

backmatter is also used as an optional class within parts, chapters, and appendixes. Within a chapter, it contains content such as conclusion, review questions, rearnotes, keyword lists, and bibliography. It is distinct from the optional frontmatter, which contains items such as table of contents, learning objectives, and learning objectives, and from the bodymatter, which contains the main sections of content.

### appendix

An appendix is similar to a chapter but appears in the product or chapter backmatter and may not be as highly structured.

#### Content Model

appendix is a section with the following additional specifications:

• requires class="appendix" epub-type="appendix"

The valid children for section class="appendix"  are (in this order):

• div class="authorgroup" (optional)
• section class="frontmatter" (optional), which must precede the section class="bodymatter"
• section class="bodymatter" (optional)
• section class="backmatter" (optional)

# Appendix D

An honest and objective look at yourself can help you to evaluate where you are at present and can guide you in the next steps in your professional journey. Carefully consider your Self-Assessment and use it to inform the writing of the plan.

# Summarize

Look at your self-assessments and summarize what you found using the questions that follow.

# Knowledge and Skills (Technical Competence)

• What specific steps would help you to move forward in each area (reading, training, coursework, etc.)?

# Behaving Like a Professional

• Discuss some specific steps that you can take to improve your skills in communication and relationships.

• Discuss some specific steps that you can take to increase your knowledge and skill in the area of professional ethics.


<p>An honest and objective look at yourself can help you to evaluate where you are at present and can guide you in the next steps in your professional journey. Carefully consider your Self-Assessment and use it to inform the writing of the plan.</p>
<p>Look at your self-assessments and summarize what you found using the questions that follow.</p>
<ul><li><p>What specific steps would help you to move forward in each area (reading, training, coursework, etc.)?</p></li></ul></section>
<ul><li><p>Discuss some specific steps that you can take to improve your skills in communication and relationships.</p></li>
<li><p>Discuss some specific steps that you can take to increase your knowledge and skill in the area of professional ethics.</p></li></ul></section></section>
</section>



### bibliography

Section containing the list of works cited in the content, often located at end of a chapter or product.

#### Content Model

Bibliography is a class of section with the following additional requirements:

• requires section class="bibliography epub:type="bibliography"
• bibliography must contain either a list of bibliographic entries or a bibliodiv, which in turn contains a biblioentrylist.
##### biblioentrylist
• ol class="biblioentrylist" contains an orderedlist of bibliographic entries
• each li within biblioentrylist must contain class="biblioentry" epub:type="biblioentry" and a unique id.
##### bibliodiv: Sorted subgroupings of bibliography
• When bibliographies are organized into logical groups (e.g., by chapter or by special category), use section class="bibliodiv" to wrap each grouping
• Each bibliodiv contains one biblioentrylist
• Best practice is to hyperlink all in-text references to bibliographic sources using biblioref.
##### Other

Bibliography may also contain a list of suggested readings. Suggested reading-type bibliographies will typically not contain in-text references.

# References

1. Board of Governors, National League for Nursing. (2008, May 9). Position statement:
Preparing the next generation of nurses to practice in a technology-rich environment. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://www.nln.org/aboutnln/positionstatements/informatics_052808.pdf

2. Thede, L. (2008, Aug 18). The electronic health record: Will nursing be on board when the ship leaves? OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(3). Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Informatics/ElectronicHealthRecord.aspx


<section class="bibliography" id="bibliography" epub:type="bibliography">
<ol class="biblioentrylist">
<li id="pref05biblio01" class="biblioentry" epub:type="biblioentry"><p>Board of Governors, National League for Nursing. (2008, May 9). Position statement:<br />Preparing the next generation of nurses to practice in a technology-rich environment. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from <a class="ulink" href="http://www.nln.org/aboutnln/positionstatements/informatics_052808.pdf">http://www.nln.org/aboutnln/positionstatements/informatics_052808.pdf</a></p></li>
<li id="pref05biblio02" class="biblioentry" epub:type="biblioentry"><p>Thede, L. (2008, Aug 18). The electronic health record: Will nursing be on board when the ship leaves? <cite>OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing</cite>, <span class="emphasis">13</span>(3). Retrieved May 19, 2011, from <a class="ulink" href="http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Informatics/ElectronicHealthRecord.aspx">http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Informatics/ElectronicHealthRecord.aspx</a></p></li>
</ol>
</section>



### dl

dl is used both as a glossary

and as general dl.

### glossary

Section that contains a list of glossary terms and definitions.

#### Content Model

glossary is a section with the following requirements:

• requires class="glossary epub:type="glossary

• must contain ol class="glossentrylist" or a section class="glossdiv" which in turn contains glossentrylist

##### glossdiv

When glossary is organized into logical groups (e.g., by chapter or alphabetically), use section class="glossdiv" to create each grouping

##### glossary list

glossarylist is a class of dl. Glossarylist is contained in either section class="glossary" or section class="glossdiv". No corresponding epub:type attribute. A glossarylist may also appear inside marginalia aside.

##### glossterm (dt)

glossterm is a class of dt. It is a child of the glossarylist and contains the:

• dfn element, which in turn contains the actual glossary term.
• may contain pronunciation.

Requires:

• dt class="glossterm" epub:type="glossterm"
• id so that keyword hyperlinks in text can link to it.
##### glossdef (dd)

glossdef is a class of dd. It contains one or more block elements, typically p, that contain the definition of the glossterm. epub:type="glossdef" required

##### Linking to glossentries from bodymatter

Best practice is for keywords in the bodymatter to link to glossterms in the glossary

# Glossary of Key Terms and Acronyms

Americans with Disabilities Act.

Affirm

When a higher court upholds the opinion of a lower court in an appeal.

Amicus curiae

“Friend of the court”; a person or organization that is allowed to appear in court or file arguments with the court even though the person or group is not a party to the suit.


<section class="glossary" id="glossary" epub:type="glossary"><header><h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Glossary of Key Terms  and Acronyms</span></h1></header>
<dd class="glossdef" epub:type="glossdef"><p>Americans with Disabilities Act.</p></dd>
<dt class="glossterm" id="bkrmgloss02" epub:type="glossterm"><dfn>Affirm</dfn></dt>
<dd class="glossdef" epub:type="glossdef"><p>When a higher court upholds the opinion of a lower court in an appeal.</p></dd>
<dt class="glossterm" id="bkrmgloss03" epub:type="glossterm"><dfn>Amicus curiae</dfn></dt>
<dd class="glossdef" epub:type="glossdef"><p>“Friend of the court”; a person or organization that is allowed to appear in court or file arguments with the court even though the person or group is not a party to the suit.</p></dd></dl></section>



### section

section is used in three contexts: to organize content into a hierarchy, to group content into front, body and backmatter, and to contain specific types of content (e.g., part, chapter, bibliography). Following are links to where these uses are documented.

### aside

#### Content Model

aside requires class attribute.

### rearnotes

A class of aside presented in list form appearing in the backmatter of the work, or at the end of a part or chapter. See also footnote.

#### Content Model

• An individual rearnote is an li class="rearnote" epub:type="rearnote" with an id

• Each rearnote must have a hyperlink that links back to the noteref that points to it from the text. Recommended best practice is that the rearnote's number be represented as a span class="number" and that the hyperlink back to the rearnote's corresponding noteref surround the span.

##### Elements in which rearnote is found

The rearnote listitems appear within ol class="rearnotelist"

##### Contents that rearnote can contain

Any content supported by li content model with the following restrictions:

• li cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements
##### rearnotes sections

rearnotelist is located in section class="rearnotes" epub:type="rearnotes".

If the rearnotes are grouped according to chapter, each grouping should be wrapped inside section edupub class="rearnotesdiv"

For format of cross-reference to rearnote (rearnote marker), see noteref_rearnote.

# Chapter1

1. 1 See Welsh (1999) for a review of this literature.

2. 2 For example, Maria, an administrative assistant I interviewed, simultaneously echoed and critiqued this understanding when she complained about her boss’s girl watching in her presence: “If he wants to do that in front of other men . . . you know, that’s what men do.”

3. 3 Recently, more researchers have turned to qualitative studies as a means to understand the process of labeling behavior as harassment. Of note are Collinson and Collinson (1996), Giuffre and Williams (1994), Quinn (2000), and Rogers and Henson (1997).


<section id="d6e79" class="endnosetsetdiv level3">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Chapter</span> <span class="number">1</span></h1>

<ol class="rearnotelist">
<li class="rearnote" epub:type="rearnote">
<p><a id="frontmen01"><span class="number">1</span></a> See <a href="biblio.xhtml#welsh1999" class="biblioref">Welsh (1999)</a> for a review of this literature.</p>
</li>

<li class="rearnote" epub:type="rearnote">
<p><a id="frontmen02"><span class="number">2</span></a> For example, Maria, an administrative assistant I interviewed, simultaneously echoed and critiqued this understanding when she
complained about her boss’s girl watching in her presence: “If he wants to do that in front of other men . . . you know, that’s what men do.”</p>
</li>

<li class="rearnote" epub:type="rearnote">
<p><a id="frontmen03"><span class="number">3</span></a> Recently, more researchers have turned to qualitative studies as a means to understand the process of labeling behavior as
harassment. Of note are Collinson and Collinson (1996), Giuffre and Williams (1994), Quinn (2000), and Rogers and Henson (1997).</p>
</li>
</ol>
</section>
</section>



### Index

An index is a list of words or phrases ('headings') and associated pointers ('locators') to where useful material relating to that heading can be found in a document. A name-index is organized by names or brands. A subject-index is for indexes of subjects or topics. When the index is mixed, use subject.

#### Content Model

name-index and subject-index are sections with the following requirements:

• requires class="name-index" or requires class="subject-index"

• must contain an index-entry-list or an index-group containing an index-entry-list.

• The index-group is for arranging the index into logical groups, e.g. alphabetically.
##### Index Group

section class="index-group" epub:type="index-group" (optional)

##### Index Entry list

ul class="index-entry-list" epub:type=index-entry-list "class="index-entry-list" (required)

##### Index entry

li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" (required)

##### Index Term in index-entry

span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term" (required)

##### Link to location (e.g., page marker) in the content (index-locator)

<a class="index-locator epub:type="index-locator" href="file366.xhtml#page155">155</a>

Required except for "See" entries. For "See" entries, use termref.

##### Locator Range (index-locator-range) Span

When there is a range of pages (i.e., 14-15), surround the range with span class="index-locator-range" epub:type="index-locator-range"

For See and See Also cross-references, the referenced index-term is marked as termref, a class of hyperlink.

##### See (index-xref-preferred) Index Term (termref) Cross-reference

See index cross-reference is wrapped in

span class="index-xref-preferred" epub:type="index-xref:preferred"

and the index term being referenced should be marked using a hyperlink with class="termref"; e.g.,

a class="termref" epub:type="termref" href="#index_advertising_1530"

span class="index-xref-related" epub:type="index-xref-related"

and the index term being referenced should be marked using a hyperlink with class="termref"; e.g.,

a class="termref" epub:type="termref" href="#index_advertising_1530"

##### Multi-level index

Nest ul class="index-entry-list" within an li class="index-entry

# A

• Index entry with a single page reference, 16

• Index entry with multiple page references, 17, 18

• Index entry with a page range, 1617

• multi-level index entry, 16

• 2nd level entry, 16

• A term used in "see"



<section id="idx01a" class="subject-index">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Subject Index</span></h1>
<section epub:type="index-group" id="idxdiv1sec27" class="index-group level1">
<h1 id="idxdiv1sec27_title">A</h1>

<ul class="index-entry-list" epub:type="index-entry-list">
<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="ix2222">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">Index entry with a single page reference,</span> <a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page16">16</a></p>
</li>

<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="ix3223">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">Index entry with multiple page references,</span> <a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page17">17</a>, <a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page18">18</a></p>
</li>

<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="ix2224">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">Index entry with a page range,</span> <span class="index-locator-range" epub:type="index-locator-range"><a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page16">16</a>–<a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page17">17</a></span></p>
</li>

<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="ix1225">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">multi-level index entry,</span> <a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page16">16</a></p>

<ul class="index-entry-list" epub:type="index-entry-list">
<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="ix2226">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">2nd level entry,</span> <a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page16">16</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
</li>

<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="ix1227">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">1st level entry,</span> <a class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator" href="filechapter_6_idp2416.xhtml#page16">16</a> <span class="index-xref-related" epub:type="index-xref-related">see also <a class="termref" href="fileidxdiv1sec27aaab.xhtml#ix2222z">destination for seealso link</a></span></p>
</li>

<li class="index-entry" epub:type="index-entry" id="index-xref-preferred">
<p><span class="index-term" epub:type="index-term">A term used in "see" <span class="index-xref-preferred" epub:type="index-xref-preferred">See <a class="termref" href="fileidxdiv1sec27aaab.xhtml#ix2222zy">destination for see link</a></span></span></p>
</li>
</ul>
</section>
</section>



#### Content Model

Answers are divs with the following requirements:

• may appear as a sibling to a question within a problem or in a separate list of answers collected at the back of a chapter or product
• There is no corresponding epub:type attribute

li

##### Contents that answer can contain

Any content supported by div content model with the following restrictions:

• answers cannot appear within themselves
• cannot contain sections
• cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in a p or other block-level elements

Best practice is for the self-assessment problem that poses the question to hyperlink to the id of the answer.

# Chapter 1

1. Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE).

2. web-server.

3. Faces servlet.

4. JavaBean.

5. @ManagedBean.


<li><div id="ans1" class="answer"><p>Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE).</p></div></li>
</ol>
</section></section>



### credits/source

A source indicates the source of cited content. It may be a figure, table, text, or media.

#### Content Model

A source is a class of div with the following requirements:

• requires class="source"
• no corresponding epub:type
• divs cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in a p or other block-level elements

There is no corresponding epub:type attribute

A credit may appear on the permissioned content directly or it may be collected to appear at the back of a product.

##### creditset

When collected at the back of a product, it is collected within a section class="creditset" and may be organized into chapter, with each chapter being a section class="creditsetdiv".

When all the sources are presented as text spans within a single paragraph, use span class="source" rather than div class="source".

##### Table Source Example
 Source: Monavvarrian, A. 2004. Administrative reform and style of work behavior: Adaptors-innovators, Public Organization Review: A Global Journal 2: 141–164. The following questions are about your style of work behavior (e.g., decision making) in your organization. Please respond to the question based on your assessment of yourself. Please read all the questions first, and then respond. 1 = Not at all (NA) 2 = To a slight extent (SE) 3 = To a moderate extent (ME) 4 = To a great extent (GE) 5 = To a very great extent (VGE) You are a person who: NA SE ME GE VGE 1. Conforms. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Will always think of something when stuck. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Enjoys detailed work. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Would sooner create than improve. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Is prudent when dealing with authority. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Never acts without proper authority. 1 2 3 4 5 7. Never seeks to bend or break the rules. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Likes bosses and work partners who are consistent. 1 2 3 4 5 9. Holds back ideas until obviously needed. 1 2 3 4 5 10. Has a fresh perspective on old problems. 1 2 3 4 5 11. Likes to vary set routines at a moment’s notice. 1 2 3 4 5 12. Prefers change to occur gradually. 1 2 3 4 5 13. Is thorough. 1 2 3 4 5 14. Is a steady plodder. 1 2 3 4 5 15. Copes with several new ideas at the same time. 1 2 3 4 5 16. Is consistent. 1 2 3 4 5 17. Can stand out in disagreement against group. 1 2 3 4 5 18. Is stimulating. 1 2 3 4 5 19. Readily agrees with the team at work. 1 2 3 4 5 20. Has original ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 21. Masters all details painstakingly. 1 2 3 4 5 22. Proliferates ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 23. Prefers to work on one problem at a time. 1 2 3 4 5 24. Is methodical and systematic. 1 2 3 4 5 25. Often risks doing things differently. 1 2 3 4 5 26. Works without deviation in a prescribed way. 1 2 3 4 5 27. Imposes strict order on matters within his control. 1 2 3 4 5 28. Likes protection of precise instruction. 1 2 3 4 5 29. Fits readily into the system. 1 2 3 4 5 30. Needs the stimulation of frequent change. 1 2 3 4 5 31. Prefers colleagues who never “rock the boat.” 1 2 3 4 5 32. Is predictable. 1 2 3 4 5

<table id="ch04untbl01">
<tfoot>
<tr>
<td colspan="6">
<div class="source">
<p>
<span class="pagebreak" title="8" id="page8" />
<span class="label">Source: </span>
<cite>Public Organization Review: A Global Journal</cite>
2: 141–164.
</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</tfoot>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td colspan="6">The following questions are about your style of work behavior (e.g., decision making) in your organization. Please respond to the question based on your assessment of yourself. Please read all the questions first, and then respond.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1 = Not at all (NA)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>2 = To a slight extent (SE)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>3 = To a moderate extent (ME)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>4 = To a great extent (GE)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>5 = To a very great extent (VGE)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>You are a person who:</td>
<td>NA</td>
<td>SE</td>
<td>ME</td>
<td>GE</td>
<td>VGE</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1. Conforms.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>2. Will always think of something when stuck.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>3. Enjoys detailed work.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>4. Would sooner create than improve.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>5. Is prudent when dealing with authority.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>6. Never acts without proper authority.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>7. Never seeks to bend or break the rules.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>8. Likes bosses and work partners who are consistent.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>9. Holds back ideas until obviously needed.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>10. Has a fresh perspective on old problems.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>11. Likes to vary set routines at a moment’s notice.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>12. Prefers change to occur gradually.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>13. Is thorough.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>15. Copes with several new ideas at the same time.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>16. Is consistent.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>17. Can stand out in disagreement against group.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>18. Is stimulating.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>19. Readily agrees with the team at work.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>20. Has original ideas.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>21. Masters all details painstakingly.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>22. Proliferates ideas.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>23. Prefers to work on one problem at a time.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>24. Is methodical and systematic.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>25. Often risks doing things differently.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>26. Works without deviation in a prescribed way.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>27. Imposes strict order on matters within his control.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>28. Likes protection of precise instruction.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>29. Fits readily into the system.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>30. Needs the stimulation of frequent change.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>31. Prefers colleagues who never “rock the boat.”</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>32. Is predictable.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>



# Chapter 1

Page 62, Table 3.1 from “Economic Foundations of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis” by A. M. Garber and C. E. Phelps, Journal of Health Economics 16(1):1–31, 1997. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Science.; Page 77, Figure 3.5, from “Physician Profiling: An Analysis of Inpatient Practice Patterns in Florida and Oregon” by H. G. Welch, M. E. Miller, and W. P. Welch, New England Journal of Medicine 330(9):607–612, 1994. Reprinted by permission of the Massachusetts Medical Society.


<body epub:type="backmatter">
<section class="creditset" id="credit01">
<p><span class="source"><strong>Page <a class="pageref" href="M03_PHEL8531_05_SE_C03.xhtml#ch03table01">62</a>, <a href="M03_PHEL8531_05_SE_C03.xhtml#ch03table01" class="xref">Table 3.1</a></strong> from <cite class="cite_roman">“Economic Foundations of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis”</cite> by A. M. Garber and C. E. Phelps, <cite class="cite_italic">Journal of Health Economics</cite> 16(1):1–31, 1997. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Science.</span>;
<span class="source"><strong> Page <a class="pageref" href="M03_PHEL8531_05_SE_C03.xhtml#x0239">77</a>, <a href="M03_PHEL8531_05_SE_C03.xhtml#x0239" class="xref">Figure 3.5</a>,</strong> from <cite class="cite_roman">“Physician Profiling: An Analysis of Inpatient Practice Patterns in Florida and Oregon”</cite> by H. G. Welch, M. E. Miller, and W. P. Welch, <span class="emphasis">New England Journal of Medicine</span> 330(9):607–612, 1994. Reprinted by permission of the Massachusetts Medical Society.</span></p>
</section>
</section></body>



### Titles and Captions

#### Content Model

##### Title

The name by which an element is identified. It is distinct from a label, in that a label is a name that is used in a recurring fashion on every instance of an element (E.g., chapter, figure) whereas the title for a given element is unique.

##### Subtitle

subtitle is a class of p with the following requirements:

• requires class="subtitle"
• require epub:type="subtitle"

The subtitle is a subordinate title, typically set off from the main title by a colon, linebreak, or difference in point size

##### label class

span class="label" represents the recurring name by which an element or class is referenced (i.e., is labeled). For example, if a figure is called an "Exhibit", then "Exhibit" is the figure's label. Any time an element is referenced by its label, the reference is marked with span class="label". A label can also be thought of as a "recurring title". When each chapter has a section class="conclusion" at the end and calls it "Summary", "Summary" is a label, not a title (because it is recurring through the entire product).

label must appear within h1

##### number class

span class="number" represents how an element or class is numbered. For example, if a figure is referenced as "Exhibit 2.2", then 2.2 is the figure's span class="number" (while "Exhibit" is the figure's label). Any time an element is referenced by its number, the number portion of the reference is marked with span class="number".

number must appear within h1

##### Titles within Figures

Figure Title must appear within figcaption

##### Titles within Tables

Table Title for figure class="table" must appear within figcaption

Table Title for table class="informaltable" must appear within table caption

##### Captions

Figure's figcaption element is a wrapper for structures such as:

• figure number and title (header/h1)
• caption (div class="caption")
• source (div class="source")

Tables's caption element is a wrapper for structures such as:

• table number and title (header/h1)
• caption (div class="caption")
• source (div class="source")

# 1.1 This is a numbered section title:

This is a section subtitle

...
...

# Table Title:

Table subtitle

Method Defined Evidence for Heredity Main Weakness
Twin study Compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins Monozygotic twins more alike than dizygotic twins Others may treat monozygotic twins more similarly than they treat dizygotic twins
Adoption study Compares children with their biological and adoptive parents Children more like biological parents than adoptive parents Selective placement: Children’s adoptive parents may resemble their biological parents
...

<section id="dm02ksdf"><header><h1 id="headerasdsdfsdfs" class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="number">1.1 </span>This is a numbered section title:</h1>
<p class="subtitle" epub:type="subtitle">This is a section subtitle</p>
...
</section>
...

<table class="informaltable" id="ch02table1">
<caption>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Table Title: </h1>
<p class="subtitle" epub:type="subtitle">Table subtitle</p>
</caption>
<tr>
<th>Method</th>
<th>Defined</th>
<th>Evidence for Heredity</th>
<th>Main Weakness</th>
</tr>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>Twin study</td>
<td>Compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins</td>
<td>Monozygotic twins more alike than dizygotic twins</td>
<td>Others may treat monozygotic twins more similarly than they treat dizygotic twins</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Compares children with their biological and adoptive parents</td>
<td>Children more like biological parents than adoptive parents</td>
<td>Selective placement: Children’s adoptive parents may resemble their biological parents</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
...
<figure id="ch04fig02">
<img alt="" src="images/ch04fig02.jpg" />

<figcaption>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Figure</span> <span class="number">4-2 </span>The Byzantine Empire, 1200 c.e.</h1>
<div class="source">
<p>From <cite class="cite cite_italic">A New History of Social Welfare</cite></p>
</div>

</figcaption>
</figure>



### Text and Inline Content

#### Content Model

Content Model is more restrictive than HTML5 for where PCDATA and inline elements are allowed. Specifically, the following block elements are not allowed to contain PCDATA and inline content directly. They must nest within p:

• aside
• blockquote
• caption
• div
• figcaption
• li
• li
• nav
• section
• td

The rationale for requiring p stems from handling multiple paragraphs. To make CSS and XSLT development more predictable as well as to make the spec consistent, we decided to treat the requirement of p as a norm throughout rather than as a special case for when there are multiple paragraphs.

# 1.1 This is a numbered section title:

This is a section subtitle

...
...

# Table Title:

Table subtitle

Method Defined Evidence for Heredity Main Weakness
Twin study Compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins Monozygotic twins more alike than dizygotic twins Others may treat monozygotic twins more similarly than they treat dizygotic twins
Adoption study Compares children with their biological and adoptive parents Children more like biological parents than adoptive parents Selective placement: Children’s adoptive parents may resemble their biological parents
...

<section id="dm02ksdf"><header><h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="number">1.1 </span>This is a numbered section title: </h1>
<p class="subtitle" epub:type="subtitle">This is a section subtitle</p>
...
</section>
...

<table class="informaltable" id="ch02table1">
<caption>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Table Title: </h1>
<p class="subtitle" epub:type="subtitle">Table subtitle</p>
</caption>
<tr>
<th>Method</th>
<th>Defined</th>
<th>Evidence for Heredity</th>
<th>Main Weakness</th>
</tr>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>Twin study</td>
<td>Compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins</td>
<td>Monozygotic twins more alike than dizygotic twins</td>
<td>Others may treat monozygotic twins more similarly than they treat dizygotic twins</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Compares children with their biological and adoptive parents</td>
<td>Children more like biological parents than adoptive parents</td>
<td>Selective placement: Children’s adoptive parents may resemble their biological parents</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
...
<figure id="ch01fig1">

<figcaption>
<h1><span class="label">Figure </span><span class="number">1.1 </span>
<span class="title">Model of Enterpreneurial Motivation</span>
</h1>
<div class="source">
<p>
<span class="label">Source: </span>
Naffziger, D.W., Hornsby, J.S., and Kuratko, D.F. 1994. “A Proposed Research Model of Entrepreneurial Motivation,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18(3):33. Reprinted from
<cite>Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice</cite>
with the permission of Baylor University. All rights reserved.
</p>
</div>
</figcaption>
</figure>



### Chapter Frontmatter

Chapter frontmatter content is typically comprised of

• objectives
• introduction
• vignette
• chapter opening graphic
• keyword list
• epigraph

...

<section class="chapter" id="fghfghf9wex">
<section class="frontmatter">
...
</section>
</section>



### vignette

Short descriptive scene, sometimes fictional, related as a story to set the stage for the chapter's focus. Typically used in the chapter frontmatter and set differently from the surrounding text.

#### Content Model

Vignette is a class of aside with the following requirements:

• requires class="vignette" epub:type="sidebar"
• cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in a p or other block-level elements

<aside class="vignette">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Making your own luck</h1>
<p>
Frank Jao worked as a translator for the American military during the war in Vietnam, and when Saigon fell in 1975, he and his wife, Kathy, were flown out of the country to Camp Pendleton, California. They had the clothes on their backs and about 20 dollars.
</p>
...
<p>
Because of Frank and Kathy’s creativity, courage, and persistence over the years, their company, Bridgecreek, has developed more than 2 million square feet of retail, condo, and apartment space. It owns and manages 1.5 million square feet of space in Southern California and employs 18 people.
</p>
</aside>



### introduction

Introduction is text in the part or chapter frontmatter that provides a narrative introduction to the part or chapter bodymatter content to follow. Distinct from the toc, objectiveset, and keywordset, the introduction sometimes occupies all the text in the chapter frontmatter or is sometimes only one or two paragraphs of the overall frontmatter.

#### Content Model

introduction is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires class="introduction"
• no epub:type attribute in this context
• cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in a p or other block-level elements

Everyone has some experience with marketing. Whether or not you have worked in a marketing position in an organization, you have certainly been exposed to advertising, evaluated sales offers, made purchase decisions, and promoted yourself in some capacity, such as applying to a college or university. These, and many other aspects of everyday life, place you in marketing situations.

Of course, understanding marketing requires much more than simply recalling and becoming aware of everyday experiences. Understanding marketing requires a familiarity with the strategies that businesses use to create awareness and interest in their products and services. Understanding marketing also requires a familiarity with the processes that consumers knowingly and unknowingly follow when evaluating and making purchase decisions. In addition, understanding marketing requires that you have knowledge of the various activities that marketing comprises, including those tasks that promote and enable transfer of ownership, enable flow of goods from manufacturer to consumer, and help facilitate completion of the first two categories of tasks. Understanding marketing also requires familiarity with disciplines, such as economics and psychology, that have provided context to what is currently known as marketing. This chapter is designed to provide a foundation for your study of marketing by explaining the meaning of marketing.


<section class="introduction" id="introduction.578">
<p>Everyone has some experience with marketing. Whether or not you have worked in a marketing position in an organization, you have certainly been exposed to advertising, evaluated sales offers, made purchase decisions, and promoted yourself in some capacity, such as applying to a college or university. These, and many other aspects of everyday life, place you in marketing situations.</p>
<p>Of course, understanding marketing requires much more than simply recalling and becoming aware of everyday experiences. Understanding marketing requires a familiarity with the strategies that businesses use to create awareness and interest in their products and services. Understanding marketing also requires a familiarity with the processes that consumers knowingly and unknowingly follow when evaluating and making purchase decisions. In addition, understanding marketing requires that you have knowledge of the various activities that marketing comprises, including those tasks that promote and enable transfer of ownership, enable flow of goods from manufacturer to consumer, and help facilitate completion of the first two categories of tasks. Understanding marketing also requires familiarity with disciplines, such as economics and psychology, that have provided context to what is currently known as marketing. This chapter is designed to provide a foundation for your study of marketing by explaining the meaning of marketing.</p>
</section>



### keyword list

Container of list of keywords that appear in section

#### Content Model

keywordset is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires section class="keywordset"
• no corresponding epub:type
• keywordset must contain ol class="keywordlist"
##### Keywordlist
• keywordlist is a class of ol that contains a list of all the keywords in a given chapter

• each listitem of keywordlist must contain at least one paragraph containing a single keyword that hyperlinks back to the id of the keyword in the chapter bodymatter
• keyword is a class of hyperlink with class=keyword epub:type="keyword"

# Key Terms

1. Benefit, 8

2. Capital, 4


<section class="keywordset" id="keywordset">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Key Terms</span></h1>
<ol class="keywordlist">
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky1" id="ch01k1">Benefit</a>, <span class="pageref">8</span></p></li>
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky2" id="ch01k2">Capital</a>, <span class="pageref">4</span></p></li>
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky3" id="ch01k3">Economic model</a>, <span class="pageref">10</span></p></li>
</ol>
</section>



### Learning Objectives

Container of list of learning objectives

#### Content Model

objectiveset is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires section class="objectiveset"
• no corresponding epub:type
• objectiveset must contain ol class="objectivelist"
##### Objectivelist
• objectivelist is an ol class="objectivelist"
• each listitem (li) of objectivelist requires class="objective"

# Learning Outcomes

After studying this chapter you should be able to:

1. Define public relations as the management function that builds and maintains relationships between organizations and their publics.

2. Distinguish between public relations and marketing, identifying the exchange between provider and customer as the distinguishing characteristic of marketing relationships.

3. Describe and differentiate among related concepts—publicity, advertising, press agentry, employee relations, community relations, public affairs, issues management, crisis communication, lobbying, investor relations, and development.

4. Outline how public relations helps improve organizations and society.


<p>After studying this chapter you should be able to:</p>
<ol class="objectivelist">
<li class="objective" id="ch01os01ob01"><p>Define public relations as the management function that builds and maintains <span class="keyword">relationships</span> between organizations and their publics.</p></li>
<li class="objective" id="ch01os01ob02"><p>Distinguish between public relations and marketing, identifying the exchange between provider and customer as the distinguishing characteristic of marketing relationships.</p></li>
<li class="objective" id="ch01os01ob03"><p>Describe and differentiate among related concepts—publicity, advertising, press agentry, employee relations, community relations, public affairs, issues management, crisis communication, lobbying, investor relations, and development.</p></li>
<li class="objective" id="ch01os01ob04"><p>Outline how public relations helps improve organizations and society.</p></li>
</ol></section>



### epigraph

A short inscription, often a quotation or poem, set at the beginning of a document or section. Epigraphs are usually related somehow to the content that follows them and may help set the tone for the component.

#### Content Model

epigraph is a special class of blockquote content model with epub:type="epigraph"

“Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here?” “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the cat.

Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland


<div class="blockquotegroup">
<blockquote class="epigraph" epub:type="epigraph">
<p>“Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here?” “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the cat.</p>
</blockquote>

<div class="source">
<p>Lewis Carroll, <cite>Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland</cite></p>
</div>
</div>



### extract

A class of blockquote that is quoted from another source.

#### Content Model

extract is a special class of blockquote content model with class="extract". [This distinction between blockquote and blockquote class="extract" will likely be removed in the next revision].

Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t.

William Shakespeare


<div class="blockquotegroup">
<blockquote class="extract"><p>Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t.</p></blockquote>
<div class="source"><p>William Shakespeare</p></div></div>



### section

Use section to to create logical grouping of block-level content within parts and chapters.

#### Content Model

To represent progressively lower heading levels (e.g., 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.1.1), nest sections inside of each other. These sections have a class of level1..n where level1 indicating the nesting level within the chapter bodymatter, frontmatter or backmatter elements.

##### section leveln classes
• level1
• level2
• level3
• level4
• level5
• level6

The leveln classes are meant to simplify CSS writing.

For parts, chapters, and appendices

• apply level1 to sectio'=n class="frontmatter"/section, section class="bodymatter"/section, and section class="backmatter"/section's.
• apply level2 to section class="frontmatter"/section/section, section class="bodymatter"/section/section, and section class="backmatter"/section/section.

Titles

...

# Channel Mapping

...

....

<section class="bodymatter">
...
...
....
</section>
</section>
</section>
</section>



### hr

The hr element represents a paragraph-level thematic break.

#### Content Model

See HTML5 spec for hr.

### paragraph

paragraph

#### Content Model

p is a p with the following specification:

• if paragraph is a "continued" paragraph–i.e., a paragraph that was interrupted by a block element and is now continuing after it–use class="continued".
##### class
• continued

This chapter comes first in this book because an overview of professions provides the foundation on which a discussion about what it means to be a professional can be built. Anyone who works with young children is aware that what we do is important, and that it requires knowledge, skill, and hard work. Yet we early childhood educators often ask ourselves why we don’t receive salaries that are commensurate with those earned by professionals in established fields, and why we aren’t acknowledged with the recognition and respect afforded to others who serve society. An academic discussion of professions may seem like a detour that impedes getting to what you are most interested in—early childhood education—but it provides a basis for understanding what follows.


<p>This chapter comes first in this book because an overview of professions provides the foundation on which a discussion about what it means to be a professional can be built. Anyone who works with young children is aware that what we do is important, and that it requires knowledge, skill, and hard work. Yet we early childhood educators often ask ourselves why we don’t receive salaries that are commensurate with those earned by professionals in established fields, and why we aren’t acknowledged with the recognition and respect afforded to others who serve society. An academic discussion of professions may seem like a detour that impedes getting to what you are most interested in—early childhood education—but it provides a basis for understanding what follows.</p>



### blockquote

A quotation set off from the main text

#### Content Model

blockquote is a blockquote with following requirements:

• cannot contain text directly; any text in the blockquote must be a child of p or an appropriate block element.
##### blockquotegroup
• if a blockquote contains a source line, blockquote must be wrapped in div class="blockquotegroup" and the source line for blockquote (div class="source") must appear as child of blockquotegroup, not of blockquote. (blockquotegroup is necessary since the HTML5 spec indicates the source of the blockquote group should not appear within the blockquote itself.

##### blockquote with no source

“If you pour molten iron ore out on the ground you get ‘pig iron’ but if you beat it a lot you get steel.”


<blockquote><p>“If you pour molten iron ore out on the ground you get ‘pig iron’ but if you beat it a lot you get steel.”</p></blockquote>


##### blockquote with source

“Exuberance is Beauty.”

William Blake


<div class="blockquotegroup">
<blockquote><p>“Exuberance is Beauty.”</p></blockquote>
<div class="source"><p>William Blake</p></div>
</div>



### pre-formatted text

pre is used when whitespace is important and is to be preserved for a block a preformatted text.

#### Content Model

pre is a pre with no additional requirements.

there is no corresponding epub:type

  //********************************************************************
//  Lincoln2.java       Author: Lewis/Loftus
//
//  Demonstrates a poorly formatted, though valid, program.
//********************************************************************

public class Lincoln2{public static void main(String[]args){
System.out.println("A quote by Abraham Lincoln:");
System.out.println("Whatever you are, be a good one.");}}


<pre>
<code>//********************************************************************
//  Lincoln2.java       Author: Lewis/Loftus
//
//  Demonstrates a poorly formatted, though valid, program.
//********************************************************************

public class Lincoln2{public static void main(String[]args){
System.out.println("A quote by Abraham Lincoln:");
System.out.println("Whatever you are, be a good one.");}}</code>
</pre>



### Lists

PXE supports all of HTML5's lists

### orderedlist

a list of items where the items have been intentionally ordered, such that changing the order would change the meaning of the list.

#### Content Model

ol is an ol with the following requirements:

• ol requires no class value and has no default semantic or epub:type attribute. ol has a number of classes to be applied as semantically appropriate.
• ol's listitem's cannot contain text directly. text must be wrapped inside p or some appropriate block element
##### Add listgroup when list is titled

if ol has a title, wrap ol within section class="listgroup" and place title header as child of the listgroup section.

#### Usage

Use ol for all lists where order is significant. This means that even if the list is not numbered or lettered, the markup should still be ol.

##### nomark

To suppress numbering or lettering on an orderedlist that will be un-numbered and unmarked, add class="nomark" and adjust CSS appropriately.

##### staticlist

To indicate that a list's numbers are part of the textual content and that therefore the CSS should not autonumber the list, add class="staticlist" and adjust the CSS to suppress autonumbering. If the ol already contains a class (e.g., class="objectivelist"), then the resulting class will be that class plus staticlist-e.g., ol class="objectivelist staticlist".

#### Classes

There are several semantic classes of orderedlist. They include:

1. The Innovative Experience. An enthusiastic overview of The Innovative Experience in which participants are challenged to think innovatively with an emphasis on the need for innovation strategies in today’s organizations.

2. Innovative Thinking. The process of thinking innovatively is foreign to most traditional managers. The misconceptions about thinking innovatively are reviewed, and a discussion of the most common inhibitors is presented. After completing an innovation inventory, managers engage in several exercises designed to facilitate their own innovative thinking.

3. Idea Acceleration Process. Managers generate a set of specific ideas on which they would like to work. The process includes examining a number of aspects of the corporation, including structural barriers and facilitators. Additionally, managers determine resources needed to accomplish their projects.

4. Barriers and Facilitators to Innovative Thinking. The most common barriers to innovative behavior are reviewed and discussed. Managers complete several exercises that will help them deal with barriers in the workplace. In addition, video case histories are shown that depict actual corporate innovators that have been successful in dealing with corporate barriers.


<ol>
<li>
<p>
An enthusiastic overview of The Innovative Experience in which participants are challenged to think innovatively with an emphasis on the need for innovation strategies in today’s organizations.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
The process of thinking innovatively is foreign to most traditional managers. The misconceptions about thinking innovatively are reviewed, and a discussion of the most common inhibitors is presented. After completing an innovation inventory, managers engage in several exercises designed to facilitate their own innovative thinking.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Managers generate a set of specific ideas on which they would like to work. The process includes examining a number of aspects of the corporation, including structural barriers and facilitators. Additionally, managers determine resources needed to accomplish their projects.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<span class="leadin">Barriers and Facilitators to Innovative Thinking. </span>
The most common barriers to innovative behavior are reviewed and discussed. Managers complete several exercises that will help them deal with barriers in the workplace. In addition, video case histories are shown that depict actual corporate innovators that have been successful in dealing with corporate barriers.
</p>
</li>
</ol>



### unorderedlist

unorderedlist

#### Content Model

ul is a ul with the following requirements:

• if ul has a title, wrap ul within section class="listgroup" and place title header as child of the listgroup section
• ul's listitem's cannot contain text directly. Text must be wrapped inside p or some appropriate block element

#### Classes

##### nomark
• By default, a ul will render as a bulleted list. if ul should be "un-numbered" (i.e., neither bulleted or numbered), set class="nomark" then make sure your CSS is edited to not output a mark for the listitem. The sample CSS provided has support for nomark.

• Mary Albrecht, Maryville University

• Richard (Mike) Dailey, University of Texas at Arlington

• Brent Goff, University of Houston–Downtown

• Chickery Kasouf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

• Norm Mcelvany, Johnson State College

• Chip Miller, Drake University

• Julianne Pfister, Fashion Institute of Los Angeles

• Lucille Pointer, University of Houston–Downtown

• Jason (Qiyu) Zhang, Loyola University


<ul>
<li><p>Mary Albrecht, Maryville University</p></li>
<li><p>Richard (Mike) Dailey, University of Texas at Arlington</p></li>
<li><p>Brent Goff, University of Houston–Downtown</p></li>
<li><p>Chickery Kasouf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute</p></li>
<li><p>Norm Mcelvany, Johnson State College</p></li>
<li><p>Chip Miller, Drake University</p></li>
<li><p>Julianne Pfister, Fashion Institute of Los Angeles</p></li>
<li><p>Lucille Pointer, University of Houston–Downtown</p></li>
<li><p>Jason (Qiyu) Zhang, Loyola University</p></li>
</ul>



### step list

Procedure List Indicating steps to perform a task

#### Content Model

steplist is a class of ol with the following requirements:

• requires class="steplist"
• no epub:type attribute
• li children cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements
##### Elements containing a steplist

steplist can appear in any context an ol is valid. When steplist is presented formally with a title and/or introductory text, it is set within section class="procedure".

# Procedures

1. Summarize the flow of physical units.

2. Compute output in terms of equivalent units.

3. Compute the cost per equivalent unit.

4. Assign costs to units completed and to units still in ending Work in process inventory.


<ol class="steplist">
<li class="step">
<p>Summarize the flow of physical units.</p>
</li>
<li class="step">
<p>Compute output in terms of equivalent units.</p>
</li>
<li class="step">
<p>Compute the cost per equivalent unit.</p>
</li>
<li class="step">
<p>Assign costs to units completed and to units still in ending Work in process inventory.</p>
</li>
</ol>
</section>



### Figures

An illustration, diagram, photo, etc, that is typically referenced from the main flow of the document and that can, without affecting the flow of the document, be moved away from that main flow, e.g. to the side of the page, or to a different page.

Although the primary content of a figure is usually a graphic, the contents of a figure may also be textual or tabular.

#### Content Model

figure is a figure with the following requirements:

• flow content followed by one figcaption
##### Figcaption

figcaption contains:

##### Alternate Text
• For alt text: If the caption for the figure adequately describes the figure, create an alt attribute equal to "". If the caption does not adequately describe the figure, omit the alt attribute.

#### Usage

• If a figure has multiple components and each component has its own caption, each component must be set as a figure within the single larger containing figure
• If a block-level image is presented without number or caption, and the image is meant to set as part of running text, not as a floating element, the figure element is not required. Use img.

• informal
• opener
• table
• inline

### figure

1. The figure element with class="figure" is expected to be labeled and numbered.

2. For a figure with no label or number, see figure class="informalfigure". For rest of figure content model, see Figures


<figure class="figure"> <img src="images/ch02fig03test.png" alt="" />
<figcaption>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Figure</span>  <span class="number">2.3 </span>Two neurons, an astrocyte, and their interconnections</h1>
<div class="caption"><p>This is the caption text</p></div>
<div class="source"><p><span class="label">Source: </span>This is the source text</p></div>
</figcaption>
</figure>



### table

Content presented in tabular form (i.e., in rows and columns)

#### Content Model

Table is an HTML5 table with the following requirements:

• If table can float away from its main content without affecting flow or understanding of that content, table must be nested in figure class="table".
• If table must set as part of running text such that moving it away from its position in running text would distort the text's meaning, table must be coded as table class="informaltable" with no figure wrapper.
• no epub:type attribute
##### largetable

If a table has enough rows or columns that such it may be unreadable on a mobile device, add class="largetable"

##### Caption

When table is nested inside of figure, the table number, title, div class="caption", and div class="source" is coded as belonging to the containing figure's figcaption, not the table's caption element.

##### Other Table Elements

An optional caption element, followed by zero or more colgroup elements, followed by an optional thead element, followed by

one tfoot element, followed by

zero or more tbody elements, or one or more tr elements

or

zero or more tbody elements, or one or more tr elements

followed by an optional tfoot element

table row

###### td

table body cell



<figure class="table" id="table">
<figcaption>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">
<span class="label">Table </span>
<span class="number">3.2 </span>
</h1>
</figcaption>
<table id="ch04untbl01">
<tfoot>
<tr>
<td colspan="6">
<div class="source">
<p>
<span class="pagebreak" title="8" id="page8" />
<span class="label">Source: </span>
<cite>Public Organization Review: A Global Journal</cite>
2: 141–164.
</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</tfoot>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td colspan="6">The following questions are about your style of work behavior (e.g., decision making) in your organization. Please respond to the question based on your assessment of yourself. Please read all the questions first, and then respond.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1 = Not at all (NA)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>2 = To a slight extent (SE)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>3 = To a moderate extent (ME)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>4 = To a great extent (GE)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>5 = To a very great extent (VGE)</td>
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
<td />
</tr>
<tr>
<td>You are a person who:</td>
<td>NA</td>
<td>SE</td>
<td>ME</td>
<td>GE</td>
<td>VGE</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1. Conforms.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>2. Will always think of something when stuck.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>3. Enjoys detailed work.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>4. Would sooner create than improve.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>5. Is prudent when dealing with authority.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>6. Never acts without proper authority.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>7. Never seeks to bend or break the rules.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>8. Likes bosses and work partners who are consistent.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>9. Holds back ideas until obviously needed.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>10. Has a fresh perspective on old problems.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>11. Likes to vary set routines at a moment’s notice.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>12. Prefers change to occur gradually.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>13. Is thorough.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>15. Copes with several new ideas at the same time.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>16. Is consistent.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>17. Can stand out in disagreement against group.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>18. Is stimulating.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>19. Readily agrees with the team at work.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>20. Has original ideas.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>21. Masters all details painstakingly.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>22. Proliferates ideas.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>23. Prefers to work on one problem at a time.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>24. Is methodical and systematic.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>25. Often risks doing things differently.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>26. Works without deviation in a prescribed way.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>27. Imposes strict order on matters within his control.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>28. Likes protection of precise instruction.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>29. Fits readily into the system.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>30. Needs the stimulation of frequent change.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>31. Prefers colleagues who never “rock the boat.”</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>32. Is predictable.</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</figure>



### informalfigure

informalfigure is a class of figure that floats, is not referenced in the text, is often a photograph, and is un-numbered. For a figure with number, see figure with no class.

#### Content Model

figure-informalfigure is a class of figure with the following requirements:

• requires class="informalfigure"
• no epub:type attribute


<figure class="informalfigure" id="ch04unfig02">
<img alt="" src="images/AAKRKYQ0.jpg" />

<figcaption>
<div class="caption">
<p>Elizabeth 1</p>
</div>
</figcaption>
</figure>



### opener

opener is a class of figure that is used as part or chapter opening art. Opening art is often specially positioned relative to a design. It does not arbitrarily float, nor is it always inline. It often has a designated special position within the overall opening layout.



<figure class="opener" id="ch08unfig02">
<img alt="" src="images/AAKRKZD0.jpg" />
<figcaption>
<div class="caption"><p>During the war, the Red Cross provided canteens and clubs for servicemen, gave social services to men in military hospitals, and provided services to servicemen’s families to help them
cope with wartime separation</p></div>
</figcaption>
</figure>



### inline

inline is a special class of figure that is required to be placed as a block-level non-floating figure that is part of the running text or the figure will lose its meaning. This type of figure is not typically labeled or numbered.

#### Content Model

inline is a special class of figure with the following additions:

• requires class="inline"

• titled or captioned

• no corresponding epub:type attribute

When a graphic must be positioned as a block-element and is part of the narrative flow and has no title or caption, use the img element alone

#### Usage

The figure class="inline" content should be positioned immediately following the paragraph to which it applies.



<figure class="inline" id="ph13_00400">
<img alt="" src="images/PH_13_003.jpg" />
<figcaption>
<div class="caption">
<p>William Stanley Jevons</p>
</div>
</figcaption>
</figure>



### Tables

Tables that are inline are marked as a table and are not nested within the figure element.

#### Content Model

##### informaltable
• Requires class="informaltable" and follows the HTML5 table content model

### informaltable

Content presented in tabular form (i.e., in rows and columns) where content is row-oriented, un-numbered, and inline to running text as part of main narrative reading order.

Characteristic Old System without XBRL New System with XBRL Benefit
Total processing cost (over 10-year period) $65 Million$39 Million Savings of $26 Million Processing time 60 to 75 Days 2 Days Savings between 58 to 73 days Source of data Multiple sources Single source Reduction of errors Errors in data received 18,000 Errors 0 Errors System allowed for the validation of the data automatically at time of submission, communicating errors to filers and allowing them to correct data prior to submission; system would not accept reports with errors. Submission method Proprietary Value-Added Network (VAN) Secure Internet Connection (HTTPS) Cost savings Software updates Manual from Excel, Word, PDF Automated using XBRL-based metadata Automated updates of vendor software, more flexibility  <table class="informaltable"> <thead> <tr> <th>Characteristic</th> <th>Old System without XBRL</th> <th>New System with XBRL</th> <th>Benefit</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td> Total processing cost (over 10-year period) </td> <td>$65 Million
</td>
<td>
$39 Million </td> <td> Savings of$26 Million
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
Processing time
</td>
<td>
60 to 75 Days
</td>
<td>
2 Days
</td>
<td>
Savings between 58 to 73 days
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
Source of data
</td>
<td>
Multiple sources
</td>
<td>
Single source
</td>
<td>
Reduction of errors
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
</td>
<td>
18,000 Errors
</td>
<td>
0 Errors
</td>
<td>
System allowed for the validation of the data automatically at time of submission, communicating errors to filers and allowing them to correct data prior to submission; system would not accept reports with errors.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
Submission method
</td>
<td>
</td>
<td>
Secure Internet Connection (HTTPS)
</td>
<td>
Cost savings
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
</td>
<td>
Manual from Excel, Word, PDF
</td>
<td>
</td>
<td>
Automated updates of vendor software, more  flexibility
</td>
</tr>

</tbody>
</table>



### Asides

Asides are block level supplemental content that may present in a number of ways.

#### Content Model

asides are asides with the following requirements:

• aside requires a class attribute. an aside element with no class attribute will be treated as invalid.

#### Classes

• sidebar
• footnote
• rearnote
• marginalia
• pullquote
• vignette





### footnote

A footnote is an aside that in print appears at the bottom of a page or of an object (e.g., table, sidebar, etc.). In digital products, its rendering varies based on the EPUB Reading System.

#### Content Model

footnote is a class of aside with the following requirements:

• requires class="footnote" epub:type="footnote" and a unique id on aside element
• must have at least one hyperlink from noteref_footnote or noteref_opener to its id
• best practice is to use span class="number" to surround the footnote number in the aside and to have a hyperlink surrounding the span to hyperlink back to the footnote reference in text.
##### footnote_opener

when the treatment of a footnote on an opener is different from the rest of the part or chapter, markup footnote as aside class="footnote footnote_opener"

For format of cross-reference to footnote (footnote marker), see noteref_footnote.


<aside class="footnote" epub:type="footnote" id="fn01"><p><a class="xref" href="#footnoteref01"><span class="number">1</span></a>The CDA requirements are roughly equivalent to one year of college.</p></aside>



### marginalia

A marginalia is a generic aside that is designed to catch the reader's attention by being positioned alongside the content to which it relates. It is typically placed in the whitespace left between the edge of the text and the outer boundary of the page or screen. The marginalia commands more attention than a footnote or rearnote aside and in contrast to a sidebar is typically closely tied to a specific line of content. It is similar to section class="notice", but whereas notice is content that wants to be placed following a paragraph in the running text, marginalia wants to be aligned with a specific line of text "off to the side". In digital products, marginalia is often rendered non-optimally, whether due to lack of support for marginal placement or the producer's lack of knowledge on how to place the marginalia in the margin.

#### Content Model

Class of aside that requires class="marginalia" epub:type="marginalia"


<p>How do common sense, anecdotal evidence, personal experience, the opinion of experts, and research differ?</p></aside>



### pullquote

A pullquote is a quotation from the text that is typically set on the same page as the original text but in a larger typeface and setoff in some distinctive fashion.

#### Content Model

pullquote is a class of aside with the following requirements:

• requires class="pullquote"
• must contain blockquote or section class="blockquotegroup"
• if pullquote contains source, blockquotegroup required
• no epub:type attribute


<aside class="pullquote" id="ch01ppp_02">
<blockquote><p>“Whenever two people meet there are six present. There is the man as he sees himself, each as the other person sees him, and each man as he really is.”</p></blockquote></aside>



### example

container for presenting "examples" of things, such as programlistings, worked problems, essays, or whatever thing the author is discussing. An example can be either a section class (if critical part of narrative text) or an aside, depending on the context.

Each major idea needs to be worded precisely and with impact. In her persuasive speech, Esperanza argued the benefits of a multicultural college experience. Her specific purpose was to persuade the audience that ethnic studies (ES) courses should be required for all students. Her organizing question was:

# Example

Why should all students be required to take ES courses?


<p>Each major idea needs to be worded precisely and with impact. In her persuasive speech, Esperanza argued the benefits of a multicultural college experience. Her specific purpose was to persuade the audience that ethnic studies (ES) courses should be required for all students. Her organizing question was:</p>
<section class="example" id="ch09exm01">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">
<span class="label">Example </span>
</h1>
<p>Why should all students be required to take ES courses?</p>
</section>



<aside class="example" id="ch04sb05"><header><h1 class="title" epub:type="title">An Example of a Progressively Changing Story: </h1>
<p class="subtitle" epub:type="subtitle">Armed Robbery</p>
<p>Let’s look at an example of a story that might develop over a short time that would require editing on the fly: Someone robs at gunpoint a popular bar in your area.</p>
</aside>



### equation

Numbered block-level math equation. For un-numbered block equations, see informalequation

#### Content Model

equation is a class of div with the following requirements:

• requires class="equation"
• requires mathml markup as child of div
• requires span class="number" positioned after mathml to indicate equation number

12 / 31 / 13  Bal + Auquisitions Depreciation COSA? = 12 / 31 / 14  Bal 210 , 000 + 310 , 000 20 , 000 COSA? = 460 , 000 500 , 000 COSA? = 460 , 000 COSA = 40 , 000 1.1

<div class="equation">
<m:math display="block" altimg="images/f0670-01.png" altwidth="591" altheight="133">
<m:mrow>
<m:mtable>
<m:mtr>
<m:mtd>
<m:mn>12</m:mn>
<m:mo>/</m:mo>
<m:mn>31</m:mn>
<m:mo>/</m:mo>
<m:mn>13</m:mn>
<m:mtext> Bal</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>+</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mtext>Auquisitions</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>−</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mtext>Depreciation</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>−</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mtext>COSA?</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>=</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd columnalign="left">
<m:mn>12</m:mn>
<m:mo>/</m:mo>
<m:mn>31</m:mn>
<m:mo>/</m:mo>
<m:mn>14</m:mn>
<m:mtext> Bal</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
</m:mtr>
<m:mtr>
<m:mtd>
<m:mn>210</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>+</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mn>310</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>−</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mn>20</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>−</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mtext>COSA?</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>=</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd columnalign="left">
<m:mn>460</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
</m:mtr>
<m:mtr>
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd>
<m:mn>500</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>−</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mtext>COSA?</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>=</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd columnalign="left">
<m:mn>460</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
</m:mtr>
<m:mtr>
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd />
<m:mtd>
<m:mtext>COSA</m:mtext>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd>
<m:mo>=</m:mo>
</m:mtd>
<m:mtd columnalign="left">
<m:mn>40</m:mn>
<m:mo>,</m:mo>
<m:mn>000</m:mn>
</m:mtd>
</m:mtr>
</m:mtable>
</m:mrow>
</m:math>

<span class="number">1.1</span>
</div>



### informalequation

#### Content Model

class of div with the following requirements:

• requires class="informalequation"
• contains MathML

Standard Deviation Formula SD = [ Σ ( X - M ) 2 / N ]

<div class="informalequation" id="app01eq01">
<m:math altimg="images/e00a7-01.png" altwidth="418" altheight="28">
<m:mrow>
<m:mrow>
<m:mtext>Standard Deviation Formula</m:mtext>
<m:mtext mathvariant="italic">SD =</m:mtext>
<m:msqrt>
<m:mrow>
<m:mrow>
<m:mrow>
<m:mo>[</m:mo>
<m:mi mathvariant="normal">Σ</m:mi>
<m:mrow>
<m:msup>
<m:mrow>
<m:mrow>
<m:mo>(</m:mo>
<m:mi>X</m:mi>
<m:mo>-</m:mo>
<m:mi>M</m:mi>
<m:mo>)</m:mo>
</m:mrow>
</m:mrow>
<m:mrow>
<m:mn>2</m:mn>
</m:mrow>
</m:msup>
<m:mo>/</m:mo>
</m:mrow>
<m:mi>N</m:mi>
<m:mo>]</m:mo>
</m:mrow>
</m:mrow>
</m:mrow>
</m:msqrt>
</m:mrow>
</m:mrow>
</m:math>
</div>



### Author-related Structures

Author structures include:

• authorgroup – wrapper for author element. Required only when multiple author elements.
• author - wrapper for various author structures, including:
• name, div class
• affiliation, div class
• jobtitle, div class
• orgname, div class
• orgdiv, div class

Author information not required to be tagged in inline contexts.


<div class="author"><div class="name"><p>John W. Creswell</p></div>
<div class="affiliation">
<div class="jobtitle"><p>Emeritus Professor of Marketing</p></div>
</div></div>



### feature

A feature is a section in the main narrative that does not float but is typically visually set off from the running text.

#### Content Model

Feature is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires class="feature"

# Good News Club v. Milford Central School

Supreme Court of the United States, 2001 533 U.S. 98

JUSTICE THOMAS delivered the opinion of the Court.

This case presents two questions. The first question is whether Milford Central School violated the free speech rights of the Good News Club when it excluded the Club from meeting after hours at the school. The second question is whether any such violation is justified by Milford’s concern that permitting the Club’s activities would violate the Establishment Clause. We conclude that Milford’s restriction violates the Club’s free speech rights and that no Establishment Clause concern justifies that violation.

The State of New York authorizes local school boards to adopt regulations governing the use of their school facilities. * * * In 1992, respondent Milford Central School (Milford) enacted a community use policy. * * * Two of the stated purposes are relevant here. First, district residents may use the school for “instruction in any branch of education, learning or the arts.” Second, the school is available for “social, civic and recreational meetings and entertainment events, and other uses pertaining to the welfare of the community, provided that such uses shall be nonexclusive and shall be opened to the general public.”

Steve and Darleen Fournier reside within Milford’s district and therefore are eligible to use the school’s facilities as long as their proposed use is approved by the school. Together they are sponsors of the local Good News Club, a private Christian organization for children ages 6 to 12. Pursuant to Milford’s policy, in September 1996 the Fourniers submitted a request to Dr. Robert McGruder, interim superintendent of the district, in which they sought permission to hold the Club’s weekly afterschool meetings in the school cafeteria. The next month, McGruder formally denied the Fournier’s request on the ground that the proposed use—to have “a fun time of singing songs, hearing a Bible lesson and memorizing scripture,”—was “the equivalent of religious worship.” According to McGruder, the community use policy, which prohibits use “by any individual or organization for religious purposes,” foreclosed the Club’s activities.

In response to a letter submitted by the Club’s counsel, Milford’s attorney requested information to clarify the nature of the Club’s activities. The Club sent a set of materials used or distributed at the meetings and the following description of its meeting:

“The Club opens its session with Ms. Fournier taking attendance. As she calls a child’s name, if the child recites a Bible verse the child receives a treat. After attendance, the Club sings songs. Next Club members engage in games that involve, inter alia, learning Bible verses. Ms. Fournier then relates a Bible story and explains how it applies to Club members’ lives. The Club closes with prayer. Finally, Ms. Fournier distributes treats and the Bible verses for memorization.”


<section class="feature" id="feature5"><header><h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="emphasis">Good News Club</span> v. <span class="emphasis">Milford Central School</span></h1>
<p class="subtitle" epub:type="subtitle">Supreme Court of the United States, 2001 533 U.S. 98</p></header>
<p>JUSTICE THOMAS delivered the opinion of the Court.</p>
<p>This case presents two questions. The first question is whether Milford Central School violated the free speech rights of the Good News Club when it excluded the Club from meeting after hours at the school. The second question is whether any such violation is justified by Milford’s concern that permitting the Club’s activities would violate the Establishment Clause. We conclude that Milford’s restriction violates the Club’s free speech rights and that no Establishment Clause concern justifies that violation.</p>
<p>The State of New York authorizes local school boards to adopt regulations governing the use of their school facilities. * * * In 1992, respondent Milford Central School (Milford) enacted a community use policy. * * * Two of the stated purposes are relevant here. First, district residents may use the school for “instruction in any branch of education, learning or the arts.” Second, the school is available for “social, civic and recreational meetings and entertainment events, and other uses pertaining to the welfare of the community, provided that such uses shall be nonexclusive and shall be opened to the general public.”</p>
<p>Steve and Darleen Fournier reside within Milford’s district and therefore are eligible to use the school’s facilities as long as their proposed use is approved by the school. Together they are sponsors of the local Good News Club, a private Christian organization for children ages 6 to 12. Pursuant to Milford’s policy, in September 1996 the Fourniers submitted a request to Dr. Robert McGruder, interim superintendent of the district, in which they sought permission to hold the Club’s weekly afterschool meetings in the school cafeteria. The next month, McGruder formally denied the Fournier’s request on the ground that the proposed use—to have “a fun time of singing songs, hearing a Bible lesson and memorizing scripture,”—was “the equivalent of religious worship.” According to McGruder, the community use policy, which prohibits use “by any individual or organization for religious purposes,” foreclosed the Club’s activities.</p>
<p>In response to a letter submitted by the Club’s counsel, Milford’s attorney requested information to clarify the nature of the Club’s activities. The Club sent a set of materials used or distributed at the meetings and the following description of its meeting:</p>
<blockquote><p>“The Club opens its session with Ms. Fournier taking attendance. As she calls a child’s name, if the child recites a Bible verse the child receives a treat. After attendance, the Club sings songs. Next Club members engage in games that involve, inter alia, learning Bible verses. Ms. Fournier then relates a Bible story and explains how it applies to Club members’ lives. The Club closes with prayer. Finally, Ms. Fournier distributes treats and the Bible verses for memorization.”</p></blockquote></section>



### case

A detailed analysis of a specific topic

#### Content Model

A case, or case study, is a class of section with the following requirements:

• require class="case"

# Case Study 2–1 Developing a Safe Schools Plan

During the past 2 years, several acts of violence had occurred at the high school in the middle-sized Cozzens Area School District. In addition to a fight that sent several students and one teacher to the hospital with minor cuts, one student brought a gun to school in a book bag, and another student threatened a teacher with an ice pick. The violence had escalated in the past month when a middle-school student pulled out a knife and slashed the parka of another student who was in her way. Although the increased number of suspensions showed that school administrators were trying to address the problem, everyone felt that something more needed to be done.

Thus, the issue was on the school board agenda for its March meeting. Parents and educators spoke with parents, voicing their concerns that they wanted their children to be feel safe while at school and wanted guns and knives out of the school. Teachers wanted metal detectors at all doors and asked to have potentially violent students expelled. After listening to the speakers, the school board discussed various options. Finally, the school board asked the superintendent to develop a written Safe Schools plan by no later than the June meeting, along with a time line for implementation.

The next day, the superintendent and his administrative team met to discuss the Safe Schools plan and how to proceed with its development. Various questions came up: Did they want to do an assessment of the types and severity of the violence? Were more professional development inservices needed? How had other school districts successfully dealt with the problem of violence? Did their plan need measurable objectives and goals or were global statements enough? Should their plan include the local police or other law enforcement officers? Should they consider an alternative school for troubled students? Should they look to one or more classroom management models, or was this beyond the content of most models? What legal aspects did they have to consider (e.g., keeping students safe while not violating their rights)? Because the school administrators had found zero tolerance to be neither popular nor effective, did they want to implement more zero-tolerance policies? Did they want more security guards and metal detectors?


<section class="case" id="ch02cs01"><header><h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Case Study </span><span class="number">2–1 </span>Developing a Safe Schools Plan</h1></header>
<p>During the past 2 years, several acts of violence had occurred at the high school in the middle-sized Cozzens Area School District. In addition to a fight that sent several students and one teacher to the hospital with minor cuts, one student brought a gun to school in a book bag, and another student threatened a teacher with an ice pick. The violence had escalated in the past month when a middle-school student pulled out a knife and slashed the parka of another student who was in her way. Although the increased number of suspensions showed that school administrators were trying to address the problem, everyone felt that something more needed to be done.</p>
<p>Thus, the issue was on the school board agenda for its March meeting. Parents and educators spoke with parents, voicing their concerns that they wanted their children to be feel safe while at school and wanted guns and knives out of the school. Teachers wanted metal detectors at all doors and asked to have potentially violent students expelled. After listening to the speakers, the school board discussed various options. Finally, the school board asked the superintendent to develop a written Safe Schools plan by no later than the June meeting, along with a time line for implementation.</p>
<p>The next day, the superintendent and his administrative team met to discuss the Safe Schools plan and how to proceed with its development. Various questions came up: Did they want to do an assessment of the types and severity of the violence? Were more professional development inservices needed? How had other school districts successfully dealt with the problem of violence? Did their plan need measurable objectives and goals or were global statements enough? Should their plan include the local police or other law enforcement officers? Should they consider an alternative school for troubled students? Should they look to one or more classroom management models, or was this beyond the content of most models? What legal aspects did they have to consider (e.g., keeping students safe while not violating their rights)? Because the school administrators had found zero tolerance to be neither popular nor effective, did they want to implement more zero-tolerance policies? Did they want more security guards and metal detectors?</p></section>



### displayedtext

displayedtext is block level content that is part of narrative but typographically set off from the main text. When none of the block-level semantic or formatting structures (e.g., blockquote, note, equation, pre, figure) fit, use displayedtext.

#### Content Model

displayedtext is a class of div with the following requirements:

• requires class="displayedtext
• no corresponding epub:type

Economic loss is an incentive for firms to exit a market, but as they do so, the price rises and the economic loss of each remaining firm decreases.


<div class="displayedtext">
<p>Economic loss is an incentive for firms to exit a market, but as they do so, the price rises and the economic loss of each remaining firm decreases.</p>
</div>



### dialogue

A container for speeches and other forms of communication involving dialogue [This content model is under review to better align it with DAISY structural vocabulary]

#### Content Model

class of div with the following requirements:

• class="dialogue" required and no corresponding epub:type
• contains div class="speech" [1 or more required]
• div class="speech" contains div class="line" [1 required]
• div class="line" contains span class="persona" [1 or more required]
• div class="line" contains p [1 required]
##### Key Structures
###### persona

speaker. class of span

###### speech

wrapper for speech. class of div

###### line

line. class of div

###### linenumber

linenumber is a class of p and contains only the line number. Appears within div class="line".

Chn. Because someone will get hurt.

T. Yes, and that is what happened. Mac was going too quickly with the pram and Justin was injured. Now how can we stop this happening next time?

Chn. No running in the classroom, only walk


<div class="dialogue">
<div class="speech">
<div class="line"><p><span class="persona">Chn.</span>
Because someone will get hurt.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="speech">
<div class="line"><p><span class="persona">T. </span>
Yes, and that is what happened. Mac was going too quickly with the pram and Justin was injured. Now how can we stop this happening next time?</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="speech">
<div class="line"><p><span class="persona">Chn.</span>
No running in the classroom, only walk</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>



### procedure

Optional section wrapper for steplist

#### Content Model

procedure is a class of section with the following requirements:

• section with class="procedure" must contain ol class="steplist"

# Procedures

1. Step 1. Specify each account affected by the transaction and classify each account by type (asset, liability, stockholders’ equity, revenue, or expense).

2. Step 2. Determine whether each account is increased or decreased by the transaction. Use the rules of debit and credit to increase or decrease each account.


<ol class="steplist staticlist">
<li class="step">
<p><span class="label">Step </span><span class="number">1. </span>
Specify each account affected by the transaction and classify each account by type (asset, liability, stockholders’ equity, revenue, or expense).
</p>
</li>
<li class="step">
<p><span class="label">Step </span><span class="number">2. </span>
Determine whether each account is increased or decreased by the transaction. Use the rules of debit and credit to increase or decrease each account.
</p>
</li>
</ol>
</section>



### letter

letter is a specific type of example. [This content model may be revised to example_letter in the next revision].

##### Content Model

letter is a case of section with the following requirements:

• requires class="letter"
• no corresponding epub:type
• section cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements

The case example is based on a letter written by a member of the research team (Roberta Garner) after the second year of the study to the individual who served as moderator in the first year.

Dear Matt:

I thought you might be interested in hearing about the focus groups this year.... Remember how last year there was not one Hispanic student in the groups, although Hispanics comprise about 20% of the students? This year we put together a list of students with Hispanic surnames and drew a random sample from it so we were able to form groups of Hispanic students. Julian (a student researcher) prepared Spanish versions of the questionnaire (a short instrument administered to all participants in the focus groups) and asked the discussion questions in Spanish for two groups composed of young men and women of Mexican origin....

When we walked into the school, we saw the usual display of athletic trophies and anti-drug posters. But the “freaks” seemed more visible this year—an Anglo boy with turquoise hair, kids with bull-ring pierces through the nasal septum, two girls with dyed spiked hair and shredded leggings lying on the floor in the entrance hall....


<p>The case example is based on a letter written by a member of the research team (Roberta Garner) after the second year of the study to the individual who served as moderator in the first year.</p>
<section class="letter"><p>Dear Matt:</p>
<p>I thought you might be interested in hearing about the focus groups this year.... Remember how last year there was not one Hispanic student in the groups, although Hispanics comprise about 20% of the students? This year we put together a list of students with Hispanic surnames and drew a random sample from it so we were able to form groups of Hispanic students. Julian (a student researcher) prepared Spanish versions of the questionnaire (a short instrument administered to all participants in the focus groups) and asked the discussion questions in Spanish for two groups composed of young men and women of Mexican origin....</p>
<p>When we walked into the school, we saw the usual display of athletic trophies and anti-drug posters. But the “freaks” seemed more visible this year—an Anglo boy with turquoise hair, kids with bull-ring pierces through the nasal septum, two girls with dyed spiked hair and shredded leggings lying on the floor in the entrance hall....</p></section>



### note

note is used for identifying the short author notes (typically with "note:" as beginning text) provided typically at bottoms of tables and figures and beginnings of sections. Contrast this usage of note with a form of section, also called "note" by the author. If started with "Note:" and Note: should be emphasized, treat Note as span class="leadin".

# Glossary

Note: The definitions here are brief and are intended as an introduction to the meaning of the terms. They do not encompass all the nuances or qualifications. For a fuller discussion, the concepts are defined in the text.

...

<div class="note"><p><span class="leadin">Note: </span>The definitions here are brief and are intended as an introduction to the meaning of the terms. They do not encompass all the nuances or qualifications. For a fuller discussion, the concepts are defined in the text.</p></div>
<dl class="glossentrylist">...</dl></section>



### notice

A notice is a message set off from the text. It is closely related to the text that preceded it and is typically positioned immediately following the text. Items that are typically labeled as "Note", "Hint", "Tip", "Warning" are examples of things we typically categorize as notes.

#### Content Model

• notice is a class of a section and requires epub:type="notice" and class="notice"

# Reminder!

In evaluating what shutter speed, aperture setting and ISO to use, don't forget to take the lens cap off.


<p>In evaluating what shutter speed, aperture setting and ISO to use, don't forget to take the lens cap off.</p></section>



### annotation

An annotation is a block-level note, analysis or commentary that is made regarding the text. It may take the form of notes to the teacher or to the student. A reference to the annotation is inserted into text with a hyperlink having a class of annoref.

#### Content Model

Annotation may be a class of aside or section

• requires class="annotation epub:type="annotation"

• requires id attribute
• requires an annotation reference (annoref)
##### annotation_instructor

Add annotation_instructor to class when annotation is an instructor's annotation

##### Annoref

Reference to an annotation is a class of hyperlink with a class="annoref" epub:type="annoref".

The monuments 4 ....


<p>The monuments <a href="#annot4" class="annoref" epub:type="annoref">4</a> .... </p>
<aside id="annot4" class="annotation annotation_instructor" epub:type="annotation">
</aside>



### abstract

block-level summary of contents from another source

#### Content Model

class of div that requires class="abstract".

Dave Isay, the founder of StoryCorps and the editor of Listening Is an Act of Love, shares the experiences that led him to begin the StoryCorps project in his essay “The Story of StoryCorps.” One of the experiences involved his showing homeless and near-homeless men who live on the lower East Side of New York City some pages of a soon-to-be-published book that feature photographs of them and the text of their oral histories. Isay writes:

One of the men looked at his story, took it in his hands, and literally danced through the halls of the hotel shouting, “I exist! I exist!” I was stunned. I realized as never before how many people among us feel completely invisible, believe their lives don’t matter, and fear they’ll someday be forgotten.

Isay’s experience with this man, who had never before felt that he existed in the larger world, who felt that he could live or die with no impact, speaks to the undertaking that is StoryCorps. StoryCorps is an oral history project that spans the breadth of the United States and records the stories of everyday people, from every walk of life. These oral histories are preserved in the Library of Congress to stand as testimonies to the people who lived and loved, dreamed and died, suffered and recovered during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in America. The stories are real, the people are real, and the connection the reader feels is also real.

Listening Is an Act of Love is a collection of these voices from across the United States. Once you begin reading, you will have the sense that the United States is not just a country, but a united state of being human. Indeed, a sense of the universal human experience is exactly what these interviews and conversations—conversations that reveal stories—evoke in this collection.

The book is divided into five sections that group the StoryCorps interviews by theme: Home and Family, Work and Dedication, Journeys, History and Struggle, and Fire and Water. Each of these thematic groupings reveals a cross section of the American experience as told by the people who have lived and are living that experience.


<div class="abstract"><p>Dave Isay, the founder of StoryCorps and the editor
of <cite>Listening Is an Act of Love</cite>, shares the experiences that led him
to begin the StoryCorps project in his essay “<cite>The Story of
StoryCorps</cite>.” One of the experiences involved his showing homeless and
near-homeless men who live on the lower East Side of New York City some pages of
a soon-to-be-published book that feature photographs of them and the text of
their oral histories. Isay writes:</p>
<blockquote><p>One of the men looked at
his story, took it in his hands, and literally danced through the halls of the
hotel shouting, “I exist! I exist!” I was stunned. I realized as never before
how many people among us feel completely invisible, believe their lives don’t
matter, and fear they’ll someday be forgotten.</p>
</blockquote><p class="continued">Isay’s experience with this man, who had never before felt
that he existed in the larger world, who felt that he could live or die with no
impact, speaks to the undertaking that is StoryCorps. StoryCorps is an oral
history project that spans the breadth of the United States and records the
stories of everyday people, from every walk of life. These oral histories are
preserved in the Library of Congress to stand as testimonies to the people who
lived and loved, dreamed and died, suffered and recovered during the twentieth
and twenty-first centuries in America. The stories are real, the people are
real, and the connection the reader feels is also real.</p>
<p><cite>Listening Is an Act of Love</cite> is a collection of these voices from across the United
States. Once you begin reading, you will have the sense that the United States
is not just a country, but a united state of being human. Indeed, a sense of the
universal human experience is exactly what these interviews and
conversations—conversations that reveal stories—evoke in this collection.</p>
<p>The book is divided into five sections that group the StoryCorps interviews
by theme: Home and Family, Work and Dedication, Journeys, History and Struggle,
and Fire and Water. Each of these thematic groupings reveals a cross section of
the American experience as told by the people who have lived and are living that
experience.</p></div>



### drama

A container for plays and other forms of dramatic presentation.

#### Content Model

[Content model is under review. In process with aligning with DAISY structural vocab] drama is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires class="drama" and no corresponding epub:type attribute
• drama contains section class="scene" [1 or more required]
##### Key Structures
###### scene

scene. class of section. Contains dialog [1 or more].

###### line number

See dialog for rest of Content Model

Sampson Gregory, on my word, we’ll not carry coals.

10

Sampson I mean, an we be in choler, we’ll draw


<section class="drama">
<section class="scene">
<div class="dialogue">
<div class="speech">
<div class="line"><p><span class="persona">Sampson</span> Gregory, on my word, we’ll not carry coals.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="speech">
<div class="line"><p class="linenumber">10</p><p><span class="persona">Sampson</span> I mean, an we be in choler, we’ll draw</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</section>
</section>



### poem

a poem

#### Content Model

Class of div with the following requirements:

• requires class="poem"
• contains one or more linegroup classes
• linegroup contains one or more line classes

A bird in the hot winds glides

and no rifle scope can capture it . . .

A man responded with the song:

The heart would be no hunter

if it didn’t play in their feathers . . .


<div class="poem" id="ch06poem04">
<div class="linegroup">
<div class="line"><p>A bird in the hot winds glides</p></div>
<div class="line"><p>and no rifle scope can capture it . . .</p></div>
<div class="line"><p>A man responded with the song:</p></div>
<div class="line"><p>The heart would be no hunter</p></div>
<div class="line"><p>if it didn’t play in their feathers . . .</p></div>
</div>
</div>



A read is a reading, often a literary work (e.g., short story). Compare to drama and poem

#### Content Model

read is a class of section with the following requirements:

• no corresponding epub:type
• section cannot contain PCDATA or any inline elements directly. PCDATA and inline elements must be wrapped in p or other appropriate block-level elements

# Nothing More Than Potential

If people are inherently good, it makes sense not to burden them with regimens, rules, and regulations that hinder the natural expressions of their impulses. And the lifting of such burdens should begin at the earliest time of life—in childhood. On the other hand, if people are not inherently good—if goodness like wisdom is not inborn but acquired—then regimens, rules, and regulations are beneficial.

Only a foolish generation would answer such a vital question on the basis of wishful thinking. But that is just what the past couple of generations did. They installed permissivism in both home and school. They let children decide what to think about truth and falsity, right and wrong, beauty and ugliness. They discarded the idea of discipline and let students decide what they would learn and how they would learn it. They put self-esteem above self-control and eliminated instruction in civics and civility.

Exactly what has been the result of almost half a century of permissivism and self-indulgence? Social chaos. Parents have lost control of their children and have no idea of how to regain it. Teachers are frustrated in their attempts to impart knowledge and often fearful for their personal safety. Young people, intent on following their urges, are making life difficult for themselves and everyone around them, and are filled with resentment without knowing why.

It’s about time America saw the notion that people are inherently good for the dangerous nonsense it is. People are not born good or evil but have the potential to be either. And which they become depends partly on the quality of the training they receive and partly on the choices they make.


<div class="authorgroup"><div class="author"><div class="name"><p>Inga Nowak</p></div></div></div>
<p>If people are inherently good, it makes sense not to burden them with regimens, rules, and regulations that hinder the natural expressions of their impulses. And the lifting of such burdens should begin at the earliest time of life—in childhood. On the other hand, if people are not inherently good—if goodness like wisdom is not inborn but acquired—then regimens, rules, and regulations are beneficial.</p>
<p>Only a foolish generation would answer such a vital question on the basis of wishful thinking. But that is just what the past couple of generations did. They installed permissivism in both home and school. They let children decide what to think about truth and falsity, right and wrong, beauty and ugliness. They discarded the idea of discipline and let students decide what they would learn and how they would learn it. They put  self-esteem above self-control and eliminated instruction in civics and civility.</p>
<p>Exactly what has been the result of almost half a century of permissivism and self-indulgence? Social chaos. Parents have lost control of their children and have no idea of how to regain it. Teachers are frustrated in their attempts to impart knowledge and often fearful for their personal safety. Young people, intent on following their urges, are making life difficult for themselves and everyone around them, and are filled with resentment without knowing why.</p>
<p>It’s about time America saw the notion that people are inherently good for the dangerous nonsense it is. People are not born good or evil but have the potential to be either. And which they become depends partly on the quality of the training they receive and partly on the choices they make.</p>
</section>



### essay

An essay is a form of writing

#### Content Model





### a

#### Content Model

Follows the HTML5 content model for a with the following requirements:

• requires a class attribute. See classes below.

#### Classes

• annoref
• biblioref
• index-locator
• keyword
• marginalia
• noteref_rearnote
• noteref_footnote
• noteref_opener
• pageref
• termref
• url-obsolete
• xref

### biblioref

In-text bibliographic citation whose hyperlink should resolve to the id of a bibliographic entry.

#### Content Model

class of hyperlink that requires class="biblioref"

In the most famous of the experiments, Mayo explored the effects of lighting on worker productivity. Focusing on a group of women who were assembling electrical relay-switching devices, he systematically varied the level of illumination in the room. He expected to be able to determine the optimal level of lighting for performing the task. However, the results were surprising and dramatically changed psychologists’ views of the worker from then on. No matter what level the lighting was set at, productivity increased! When lighting was increased, worker output went up. Further increase to very bright illumination resulted in further improvement. Turning the lights down (even to such low levels that it appeared that the women were working in moonlight) also led to increases in productivity. There was a steady increase in workers’ output following any change in lighting. In other studies, Mayo systematically varied the length and timing of work breaks. Longer breaks, shorter breaks, and more or fewer breaks, all resulted in a steady increase in worker output (Mayo, 1933).


<p>In the most famous of the experiments, Mayo explored the effects of lighting on worker productivity. Focusing on a group of women who were assembling electrical relay-switching devices, he systematically varied the level of illumination in the room. He expected to be able to determine the optimal level of lighting for performing the task. However, the results were surprising and dramatically changed psychologists’ views of the worker from then on. No matter what level the lighting was set at, productivity increased! When lighting was increased, worker output went up. Further increase to very bright illumination resulted in further improvement. Turning the lights down (even to such low levels that it appeared that the women were working in moonlight) also led to increases in productivity. There was a steady increase in workers’ output following any change in lighting. In other studies, Mayo systematically varied the length and timing of work breaks. Longer breaks, shorter breaks, and more or fewer breaks, all resulted in a steady increase in worker output (<a class="biblioref" href="#x315726C8-71F7-5C19-F90F-8C7E89364B77">Mayo, 1933</a>).</p>



### index-locator

hyperlink to surround the page cross-reference within an index. See index for more details.

#### Content Model

index-locator is a hyperlink (a) with the following requirements:

• requires class="index-locator" epub:type="index-locator"
• href points to id of relevant object, either a pagebreak or the id of the content located on that page

See index for more details.

### keyword

in-line content indicating a key word or phrase. keywords typically appear in the chapter bodymatter content and link to the glossary but may also appear in sections such as keywordset. See also glossary.

#### Content Model

keyword is a hyperlink (a) content model with the following requirements:

• keywords appear inline in chapter body text and as a collected list in keywordlist
• When a corresponding glossary entry is present, the keyword directly links to the id of the glossary entry's glossterm (dt).
• When a glossary entry appears in both chapter marginalia and a backmatter glossary, the keyword directly links to the id of the glossary entry's glossterm (dt) in the chapter marginalia.
• When a glossary entry is not present, the keyword in bodymatter is not hyperlinked to anything and is marked as span class="keyword" rather than as a hyperlink
##### when keywords don't link to a glossentry
• When a glossary entry is not present, the keyword in bodymatter is not hyperlinked to anything and is marked as span class="keyword" rather than as a hyperlink
##### linking keywords from the keyword list
• link to the id of the keyword in bodymatter, not to the corresponding glossentry
##### keyword section

keywordset is a section class that contains the keywordlist. It typically contains a label and a keywordlist.

##### keyword list

The keywordlist is a class of ol that contains a list of all the keywords in a given chapter

Each listitem within the keywordlist contains a single keyword, whose href links to the id of the keyword in the text. The listitem may also contain a cross-reference to the page on which the keyterm is discussed.

##### Keyword in chapter paragraph

Built over centuries, Hopewell mounds were shaped like circles, octagons, and squares. The mounds had ritual and ceremonial importance, and served as burial sites. Archaeologists believe that many of these earthen mounds were aligned to reflect astronomical events, particularly sunrise and moonrise patterns. The mound building culture of Hopewell was most likely the work of bigmen ,” elites who gained power and authority from spiritual and mythological knowledge and the control of trade.



<p>Built over centuries, Hopewell mounds were shaped like circles, octagons, and squares. The mounds had ritual and ceremonial importance, and served as burial sites. Archaeologists believe that many of these earthen mounds were aligned to reflect astronomical events, particularly sunrise and moonrise patterns. The mound building culture of Hopewell was most likely the work of <a href="#gloss016" class="keyword">bigmen
</a>,” elites who gained power and authority from spiritual and mythological knowledge and the control of trade.</p>



# Key Terms


<ol class="keywordlist">
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky1" id="ch01k1">Benefit</a>, <a class="pageref" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky1">8</a></p></li>
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky2" id="ch01k2">Capital</a>, <a class="pageref" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky2">4</a></p></li>
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky3" id="ch01k3">Economic model</a>, <a class="pageref" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky3">10</a></p></li>
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky4" id="ch01k4">Economics</a>, <a class="pageref" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky4">2</a></p></li>
<li><p><a class="keyword" epub:type="keyword" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky5" id="ch01k5">Efficiency</a>, <a class="pageref" href="M02_MICH4254_10_AIE_CH01.xhtml#ch01ky5">5</a></p></li>
</ol></section>



### marginalia





### noteref

noteref is a class of a that indicates the target of the hyperlink will be a footnote or rearnote. It cannot be used as a class by itself. To be valid, it requires the subclass noteref_rearnote or noteref_footnote.

### noteref_rearnote

cross-reference to the rearnote. The cross-reference is a mark in the text, typically a number, that is hyperlinked to the id of the referenced li class="rearnote".

#### Content Model

noteref_rearnote is a class of a with the following requirements:

• requires class="noteref noteref_rearnote" epub:type="rearnote"
• requires id attribute
• restricted to containing the rearnote number it is referencing. The number itself will be marked with span class="number".

...

# Educational Patterns

Another important aspect of this book is that it follows an iterative style. In the computing education community, a well-known educational design pattern exists that states that important concepts should be taught early and often. 1 It is very tempting for textbook authors to try and say everything about a topic at the point where it is introduced. For example, it is common, when introducing types, to give a full list of built-in data types, or to discuss all available kinds of loop when introducing the concept of a loop.

1. ...

2. ...


<body epub:type="bodymatter">
<section class="chapter" id="ixchdf">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Approaches in Education</h1>
<section class="frontmatter">...</section>
<section class="bodymatter">
<section id="aa02342">
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title">Educational Patterns</h1>
<p>Another important aspect of this book is that it follows an iterative style. In the computing education community, a well-known educational design pattern exists that states that important concepts should be taught early and often.
<a class="noteref noteref_rearnote" epub:type="noteref" href="#endnnte1">
<span class="number">1</span>
</a>It is very tempting for textbook authors to try and say everything about a topic at the point where it is introduced. For example, it is common, when introducing types, to give a full list of built-in data types, or to discuss all available kinds of loop when introducing the concept of a loop.</p>
</section>
<section class="backmatter">
<section class="rearnotes" epub:type="rearnotes">
<ol class="rearnotelist">
<li id="endnnte1" epub:type="rearnote"><p>...</p></li>
<li id="endnnte2" epub:type="rearnote"><p>...</p></li>
</ol>
</section>

</section>
</section>
</section>
</body>



### noteref_footnote

Cross-reference to a footnote. Cross-reference is a mark in the text, a number or a symbol, that is hyperlinked to the corresponding footnote

#### Content Model

noteref_footnote is a class of a with the following requirements:

• requires class="noteref noteref_footnote" epub:type="noteref"
• requires id attribute
• restricted to containing the footnote number/symbol it is referencing. The number/symbol itself will be marked with span class="number".

Marshall next addressed whether any state government could tax a federal bank. To Marshall, this was not a difficult question. The national government depended on the people, not the states, for its powers. In addition, Marshall noted, the Constitution specifically called for the national law to be supreme. “The power to tax involves the power to destroy,” wrote the chief justice.3 Thus, the state tax violated the supremacy clause because individual states cannot interfere with operations of the national government, whose laws are supreme.


<p>Marshall next addressed whether any state government could tax a federal bank. To Marshall, this was not a difficult question. The national government depended on the people, not the states, for its powers. In addition, Marshall noted, the Constitution specifically called for the national law to be supreme. “The power to tax involves the power to destroy,” wrote the chief justice.<a epub:type="noteref" class="noteref noteref_footnote" href="#fn01"><span class="number">3</span></a> Thus, the state tax violated the supremacy clause because individual states cannot interfere with operations of the national government, whose laws are supreme.</p>



### noteref_opener

Same as footnote but when footnote cross-reference mark is special to part or chapter opener and is distinctly formatted from other non-opener footnote cross-reference marks.

### pagebreak

A pagebreak is an empty span indicating where a page break occurred in a print version of the content.

#### Content Model

pagebreak is a class of span with the following requirements:

• requires id attribute
• requires class="pagebreak" epub:type="pagebreak"
• requires title attribute whose value is the print page number
##### Usage

Pagebreak marker should be located where the page broke in the print edition, to the degree that HTML5 markup allows this

# Microeconomics





### pageref

A pageref is a page cross-reference marked as a hyperlink with an href to either the id of the relevant object that appears on that page or to a pagebreak marker denoting the page location. Best practice is to link to the id of the object being referenced on the page rather than to a pagebreak marker. Used in legacy conversions from a print version of the content. See also pagebreak. See also how page references are handled in indexes. There is a special class - index-locator - distinct from pageref.

Some personal qualities are specific to each profession. One expects a different sort of person to be attracted to the person-oriented activities of the attorney, teacher, or social worker, than the project-oriented activities of the engineer, architect or accountant, and to activities that combine the two such as those of the physician, military officer, or business manager. This is discussed in greater detail later in the chapter on page 33).


<p>Some personal qualities are specific to each profession. One expects a
different sort of person to be attracted to the person-oriented activities
of the attorney, teacher, or social <span id="page11" class="pagebreak" title="11" />worker,
than the project-oriented activities of the engineer, architect or accountant,
and to activities that combine the two such as those of the physician,
military officer, or business manager. This is discussed in greater detail later in the chapter on page <a class="pageref" href="#ch01lev1sec5">33</a>).</p>



### url-obsolete

Out-of-date url. It either does not resolve or resolves to a page that is different from the original page referenced. See also url-example and ulink.

Prior to joining Suros, Smith was President and CEO of Cytomedix, Inc., a start-up health care biotechnology company specializing in growth-factor technologies for chronic wound care in San Diego, California. While at Cytomedix, Smith was responsible for bringing the company out of bankruptcy, developing a national independent sales channel while commercializing a new product for sale in the chronic wound market, and initiating the strategy to defend the company’s intellectual property rights. Prior to Cytomedix, Smith was Senior Vice President of Suppliers at Medibuy.com, an Internet portal which raised over $177 million in capital.  <p>Prior to joining Suros, Smith was President and CEO of Cytomedix, Inc., a start-up health care biotechnology company specializing in growth-factor technologies for chronic wound care in San Diego, California. While at Cytomedix, Smith was responsible for bringing the company out of bankruptcy, developing a national independent sales channel while commercializing a new product for sale in the chronic wound market, and initiating the strategy to defend the company’s intellectual property rights. Prior to Cytomedix, Smith was Senior Vice President of Suppliers at <span class="url-obsolete">Medibuy.com</span>, an Internet portal which raised over$177 million in capital.</p>



### webresource

Class of hyperlink represents Pearson trackable web asset specific to a Pearson product. Contrast webresource with a regular ulink.

#### Content Model

webresource is a class of a with the following requirements:

• requires class="webresource" and href attribute containing the url for the Pearson trackable asset

This edition is tied more closely than ever to the innovative website, MyHistoryLab, which helps you save time and improve results as you study history (www.myhistorylab.com). MyHistoryLab icons now appear throughout the textbook, connecting the main narrative of each chapter to a powerful array of MyHistoryLab resources, including primary source documents, analytical video segments, interactive maps, and more. Also tied to each chapter of the textbook, a powerful and personalized Study Plan is available on MyHistoryLab that will help you build a deeper and more critical understanding of the subject.


<p>This edition is tied more closely than ever to the innovative website, MyHistoryLab, which helps you save time and improve results as you study history (<a class="webresource" href="http://www.myhistorylab.com">www.myhistorylab.com</a>). MyHistoryLab icons now appear throughout the textbook, connecting the main narrative of each chapter to a powerful array of MyHistoryLab resources, including primary source documents, analytical video segments, interactive maps, and more. Also tied to each chapter of the textbook, a powerful and personalized Study Plan is available on MyHistoryLab that will help you build a deeper and more critical understanding of the subject.</p>



### xref

xref is a general hyperlink that cross-references an object. Contrast with other hyperlinks with more semantic classes (e.g., biblioref, pageref, ulink, keyword).

#### Content Model

Class of hyperlink that requires class="xref".

These chapters offer a perspective about professions from the outside looking in. They will be most interesting to advanced students and to those wanting to learn about the sociology and philosophy relating to professions. Those whose primary interest is the implications of the study of professionalism for day-to-day work with children might find this book more beneficial if they begin their reading with Chapter 3.


<p>These chapters offer a perspective about professions from the outside looking in. They will be most interesting to advanced students and to those wanting to learn about the sociology and philosophy relating to professions. Those whose primary interest is the implications of the study of professionalism for day-to-day work with children might find this book more beneficial if they begin their reading with
<a href="ch03.xhtml#ch03" class="xref"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span class="number">3</span></a>.</p>



### span

Span should be used only in conjunction with a class.

### doubleunderscore

doubleunderscore is span class indicating double underline formatting.

This text is double-underlined. This text is normal.


<p><span class="doubleunderscore">This text is double-underlined.</span> This text is normal.</p>



### emphasis

span class="emphasis" is typically rendered as italic but may also be rendered as a different color or typeface to add further emphasis. Contrast with HTML5's em element, which indicates vocal emphasis and HTML5's i element, which should be used only when text must render as italic to preserve the author's meaning and there is no other appropriate semantic tagging.

#### Content Model

class of span that requires class="emphasis"

Take a moment to review the 10 test questions above. Beginning psychology students typically assume they know the answers to most of them. That’s hardly surprising, as these assertions have become part of popular psychology lore. Yet most students are surprised to learn that all 10 of these statements are false! This little exercise illustrates a take-home message we’ll emphasize throughout the text: Although common sense can be enormously useful for some purposes, it’s sometimes completely wrong (Chabris & Simons, 2010). This can be especially true in psychology, a field that strikes many of us as self-evident, even obvious.


<p>Take a moment to review the 10 test questions above. Beginning
psychology students typically assume they know the answers to most of
them. That’s hardly surprising, as these assertions have become part of
popular psychology lore. Yet most students are surprised to learn that
<em>all</em> 10 of these statements are false! This little exercise
illustrates a take-home message we’ll emphasize throughout the text:
<span class="emphasis">Although common sense can be enormously useful for some purposes,
it’s sometimes completely wrong</span> (<a href="chapxx.xhtml" class="biblioref">Chabris &amp; Simons, 2010</a>). This can be
especially true in psychology, a field that strikes many of us as
self-evident, even obvious.</p>



### firstname and lastname

markup for first name of a person and last name. These spans are optional children of the name class and are used mainly when a formatting distinction is needed.

#### Content Model

class of span that highlight the firstname and a last name within name. Optional child of div class="name".


<div class="authorgroup">
<div class="author"><div class="name"><p><span class="firstname">Alan</span> <span class="lastname">Evans</span></p></div></div>
</div>



### inlineequation

inlineequation is an inline math equation.

#### Content Model

inlineequation is a class of span with the following modifications:

• requires class="inlineequation"
• no corresponding epub:type
• math coded using MathML

Given the quadratic equation a x 2 + b x + c = 0 ...



<p>
<span class="inlineequation">
<m:math display="inline" alttext="..." altimg="images/eq21.png" altimg-width="400px" altimg-height="100px">
<m:mrow>
<m:mi>a</m:mi>
<m:mo>⁢</m:mo>
<m:msup>
<m:mi>x</m:mi>
<m:mn>2</m:mn>
</m:msup>
<m:mo>+</m:mo>
<m:mi>b</m:mi>
<m:mo>⁢</m:mo>
<m:mi>x</m:mi>
<m:mo>+</m:mo>
<m:mi>c</m:mi>
<m:mo>=</m:mo>
<m:mi>0</m:mi>
</m:mrow>
</m:math>
</span>
...
</p>



### label

span class="label" represents the recurring name by which an element or class is referenced (i.e., is labeled). For example, if a figure is called an "Exhibit", then "Exhibit" is the figure's label. Any time an element is referenced by its label, the reference is marked with span class="label". A label can also be thought of as a "recurring title". When each chapter has a section class="conclusion" at the end and calls it "Summary", "Summary" is a label, not a title (because it is recurring through the entire product).

#### Content Model

label is a class of span with the following requirements:

• requires class="label"
• no corresponding epub:type

For HTML5 label element, see See label.

Susan Majors contributed the pediatric forms for the well-child exercises in Chapter 12.


<p>Susan Majors contributed the pediatric forms for the well-child exercises in <a class="xref" href="M12_RICH3722_00_AIE_CH12.xhtml#ch12"><span class="label">Chapter </span><span class="number">12</span></a>.</p>



<figure id="prefig11">
<figcaption>
<h1 class="title" epub:type="title"><span class="label">Figure </span><span class="number">11.2 </span>Understanding the Microeconomy and the Role of Government</h1>
</figcaption>
</figure>



leadin is emphasized text at the start of a title or a paragraph.

leadin is typically rendered as bold but may also be rendered as a different color or typeface to add further typographic emphasis.

• Primary Source Documents—A collection of documents, organized by chapter, are available on MySearchLab. The documents include head notes and critical thinking questions.

• Gradebook—Automated grading of quizzes helps both instructors and students monitor their results throughout the course.



<ul><li><p><span class="leadin">Primary Source Documents</span>—A collection of documents, organized by chapter, are available on MySearchLab. The documents include head notes and critical thinking questions.</p></li>
</li></ul>



### number

number represents the numbered part of an element or class. Any time an element is referenced by its number, the number portion of the reference is marked with span class="number". If a figure is referenced as "Exhibit 2.2", then "2.2" is the figure's number (while "Exhibit" is the figure's label).

# Section 1.1.4 Directed Verdicts

....

<figure class="figure" id="mfs9r">
...
</figure>
....
</section>
....
</aside>



### pronunciation

pronunciation is a class of span with the following requirements:

• requires class="pronunciation"
• no corresponding epub:type
• typically used as a child of dt but may also appear in other contexts

### smallcaps

smallcaps is a class of span and a typographic style that sets uppercase letters at lowercase letters height. smallcaps are typically stylistic rather than semantic markup


<aside class="vignette">
<p>At 5<span class="smallcaps">am</span> Sam gets up to go to work everyday...</p>
</aside>



### speaker

speaker is a class of span with the following requirements:

• requires class="speaker"
• no corresponding epub:type

See drama

### strong

Use strong to indicate strong emphasis. It is typically rendered as bold but may also be rendered as a different color or typeface to add further typographic emphasis. Contrast strong with span class="emphasis", which is a lighter form of emphasis and is typically rendered as italics.

Use strong only when a more semantic or structural markup--e.g., span class="leadtext", span class="title", a class="keyword"--is not appropriate.

Contrast strong with span class="strong".

In this section we introduce readers to the Six Principles of Scientific Thinking that are the framework for lifelong learning of psychology.


<p>In this section we introduce readers to the <strong>Six Principles of
Scientific Thinking</strong> that are the framework for lifelong
learning of psychology.</p>



### subtitle

h2 is used to markup the subtitle portion of a structure's header. See titles for breakdown of the components of structure's header.

### url-example

Span class to apply to url that is for example purposes only and is not intended to resolve to an actual website or to be an active hyperlink. Purpose of markup is to add formatting controls to "example" urls and to prevent example url's from triggering validation errors in QA workflows for being untagged.

#### Content Model

Class of span requiring class="url-example.





### wol (write-on line)

A wol (write-online) is a class of span used in fill-in-the-blank-problem exercises. It is expected that a CSS style will create the fill-in-the-blank rule

1. The name of the genre is .


<ol class="practicelist"><li class="fb-problem" id="id">
<div class="question">
<p>The name of the genre is <span class="wol">          </span>.</p>
</div>
</li>
</ol>



### abbr

See HTML5 spec for abbr.

### b

Use b only when the author's editorial intent will be lost unless the content is rendered in bold. For strong emphasis where bold formatting is a design decision, not part of the literal meaning, use strong.

Authors often emphasize their text using bold text and italicized text.


<p>Authors often emphasize their text using <b>bold</b> text and <i>italicized text</i>.</p>



### bdi

See HTML5 spec for bdi

### bdo

See HTML5 spec for bdo

### br

See HTML5 spec for br

### cite

See HTML5 spec for cite

#### Classes

• cite_roman - for citations that should render in roman (e.g., title of short story within book)
• cite_italic - for citations that should render in italic (e.g., title of book)

### code

See HTML5 spec for code

### data

See HTML5 spec for data

### em

em represents vocal editorial emphasis. Compare em to span class="emphasis", which represents typographic emphasis to make text standout but has no specific editorial implication, other than indicating importance.

### i

See HTML5 spec for i

#### Usage

Use only when the rendering must be in italic or else the author's meaning will be list. Contrast usage with em and span class="emphasis".

### kbd

See HTML5 spec for kbd

### mark

See HTML5 spec for mark

### q

See HTML5 spec for q

### rp

See HTML5 spec for rp

### rt

See HTML5 spec for rt

### ruby

See HTML5 spec for ruby.

### s

See HTML5 spec for s.

### samp

See HTML5 spec for samp.

### small

See HTML5 spec for small.

### sub

See HTML5 spec for sub.

### sup

See HTML5 spec for sup.

### time

See HTML5 spec for time.

### u

See HTML5 spec for u.

### var

See HTML5 spec for var.

### wbr

See HTML5 spec for wbr.

### Chapter backmatter

Chapter backmatter content is typically comprised of:

• practice section
• conclusion section
• keywordset section
• rearnotes section
• glossary section
• bibliography section
• appendix section

### conclusion

Container for summary of key points of chapter.

#### Content Model

Conclusion is a class of section with the following requirements:

• requires class="conclusion" epub:type="conclusion"

#### Usage

conclusion is typically the first section of the chapter backmatter, though sometimes authors make it the last chapter of the chapter bodymatter

# Summary

A central task in feminist scholarship is to expose and dismantle the stereotypes that traditionally have provided ideological justifications for women’s subordination. But to conceptualize oppression only in terms of male dominance and female subordination is to obscure the centrality of classism, racism, and other forms of inequality in U.S. society). The multiplicities of Asian men’s lives indicate that ideologies of manhood and womanhood have as much to do with class and race as they have to do with sex. The intersections of race, gender, and class mean that there are also hierarchies among women and among men and that some women hold power over certain groups of men. The task for feminist scholars, then, is to develop paradigms that articulate the complicity among these categories of oppression, that strengthen the alliance between gender and ethnic studies, and that reach out not only to women, but also to men, of color.


<p>A central task in feminist scholarship is to expose and dismantle the stereotypes that traditionally have provided ideological justifications for women’s subordination. But to conceptualize oppression only in terms of male dominance and female subordination is to obscure the centrality of classism, racism, and other forms of inequality in U.S. society).
The multiplicities of Asian men’s lives indicate that ideologies of manhood and womanhood have as much to do with class and race as they have to do with sex. The intersections of race, gender, and class mean that there are also hierarchies among women and among men and that some women hold power over certain groups of men. The task for feminist scholars, then, is to develop paradigms that articulate the complicity among these categories of oppression, that strengthen the alliance between gender and ethnic studies, and that reach out not only to women, but also to men, of color.</p>
</section>



### assessment

#### Content Model

Assessment content includes:

Each problem is modeled as an li with a specific problem class.

##### practicelist

Each problem listitem must appear within an ol class="practicelist".

#### Key Structures

In addition to the various problem classes, assessment also includes:

• practice (section class that wraps around the entire assessment section. Requires epub:type="practice")
• practicediv, subsection of practice (section class)
• instructions (div class)
• question child of of the assessment problem types (div class)
• answer child of one of the assessment problem types/sibling to question. May also present as a collection of answers in a list (div class)

# Chapter 1

1. Which would be a better description of naive realism, “seeing is believing” or “believing is seeing”?

2. What does Shepard’s table illusion tell us about our ability to trust our own intuitions and experiences?

3. The name of the genre is .

4. Shakespeare's last play was The Tempest.

5. Which New Yorker author also wrote children's books?

1. James Thurber

2. E.B White

3. Dorothy Parker

6. Match the items on the left list with the items on the right list

1. The point that, if won, wins the match for a player

2. The area between the net and the service line

3. Hitting the ball before it bounces

4. Stroke made after the ball has bounced, either forehand or backhand

5. The line that is perpendicular to the net and divides the two service courts

6. The initial part of any swing; the act of bringing the racket back to prepare for the forward swing

7. A ball hit high enough in the air to pass over the head of the net player

8. A ball that is served so well that the opponent fails to touch it with his or her racquet

9. A shot that bounces near the baseline

10. Start of play for a given point

1. ace

2. backswing

3. center service line

4. deep shot

5. forecourt

6. set point

7. lob

8. match point

9. serve

10. volley

11. dink

12. ground stroke



<ol class="practicelist">
<li class="general-problem" id="id">
<div class="question">
<p>Which would be a better description of naive realism, “seeing is believing” or “believing is seeing”?</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="general-problem" id="idgp2">
<div class="question">
<p>What does Shepard’s table illusion tell us about our ability to trust our own intuitions and experiences?</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="fb-problem" id="idfb">
<div class="question">
<p>The name of the genre is <span class="wol">          </span>.</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="tf-problem" id="idtfp">
<div class="question">
<p>Shakespeare's last play was The Tempest.</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="multiple-choice-problem" id="idmcp">
<div class="question">
<p>Which New Yorker author also wrote children's books?</p>
</div>
<ol class="choices">
<li><p>James Thurber</p></li>
<li><p>E.B White</p></li>
<li><p>Dorothy Parker</p></li>
</ol>
</li>

<li class="match-problem" id="id">
<div class="instructions"><p>Match the items on the left list with the items on the right list</p></div>
<div class="question">

<ol class="matchlist"><li><p>The point that, if won, wins the match for a player</p></li>
<li><p>The area between the net and the service line</p></li>
<li><p>Hitting the ball before it bounces</p></li>
<li><p> Stroke made after the ball has bounced, either forehand or backhand</p></li>
<li><p>The line that is perpendicular to the net and divides the two service courts</p></li>
<li><p>The initial part of any swing; the act of bringing the racket back to prepare for the forward swing</p></li>
<li><p>A ball hit high enough in the air to pass over the head of the net player</p></li>
<li><p>A ball that is served so well that the opponent fails to touch it with his or her racquet</p></li>
<li><p>A shot that bounces near the baseline</p></li>
<li><p>Start of play for a given point</p></li></ol>

<ol class="matchlist">
<li><p>ace</p></li>
<li><p>backswing</p></li>
<li><p>center service line</p></li>
<li><p>deep shot</p>
</li>
<li><p>forecourt</p></li>
<li><p>set point</p></li>
<li><p>lob</p></li>
<li><p>match point</p></li>
<li><p>serve</p></li>
<li><p>volley</p></li>
<li><p>dink</p></li>
<li><p>ground stroke</p></li></ol>
</div>
</li>
</ol>
</section>
</section>



### general-problem

container for general question and optional answer

#### Content Model

general-problem is an li with the following requirements:

• requires class="general-problem"

# Learning Activities

1. Which would be a better description of naive realism, “seeing is believing” or “believing is seeing”?

2. What does Shepard’s table illusion tell us about our ability to trust our own intuitions and experiences?


<ol class="practicelist">
<li class="general-problem" id="id1">
<div class="question">
<p>Which would be a better description of naive realism, “seeing is believing” or “believing is seeing”?</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="general-problem" id="id">
<div class="question">
<p>What does Shepard’s table illusion tell us about our ability to trust our own intuitions and experiences?</p>
</div>
</li>
</ol>
</section>



### true-false-problem

#### Content Model

[Content model under review] tf-problem is an li with the following requirements:

• requires class="general-problem"
• appears inside ol class="practicelist"

# Review Questions

Answer the following questions as true or false.

1. There will be an increase in the numbers of both elementary and secondary teachers in each year from 1998 through 2004.

2. The number of additional elementary teachers added each year from 1998 through 2004 will be larger in the years at the beginning of this time period than in the years toward the end.

3. From this information, we can infer that the numbers of secondary students will increase at a slower rate than will the numbers of elementary pupils in the years 1998 through 2004.


<div class="instructions"><p>Answer the following questions as true or false.</p></div>
<ol class="practicelist">
<li class="tf-problem">
<div class="question">
<p>There will be an increase in the numbers of both elementary and secondary teachers in each year from 1998 through 2004.</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="tf-problem">
<div class="question">
<p>The number of additional elementary teachers added each year from 1998 through 2004 will be larger in the years at the beginning of this time period than in the years  toward the end.</p>
</div>
</li>
<li class="tf-problem">
<div class="question">
<p>From this information, we can infer that the numbers of secondary students will increase at a slower rate than will the numbers of elementary pupils in the years 1998 through 2004.</p>
</div>
</li>
</ol></section>



### multiple-choice-problem

#### Content Model

[content model under review] multiple-choice-problem is an li with the following requirements:

• requires class="multiple-choice-problem"
1. Which distance is longest?

1. 1600m

2. 5K

3. 3 miles


<ol class="practicelist">

<li class="multiple-choice-problem" id="idmcp">
<div class="question">
<p>Which distance is longest?</p>
</div>
<ol class="choices">
<li><p>1600m</p></li>
<li><p>5K</p></li>
<li><p>3 miles</p></li>
</ol>
</li>
</ol>



### fill-in-the-blank

Exercise reading reader to complete a sentence by filling in the missing word(s).

#### Content Model

fill-in-the-blank-problem is an li with the following requirements:

• requires class="fb-problem"
1. The airplane was landed during the _____.

2. The lawyer wrote an angry _____ to the judge.


<ol class="practicelist">

<li id="ch05fb01" class="fb-problem">
<div class="question" id="ch05ques02">
<p>The airplane was landed during the _____.</p>
</div>
</li>

<li id="ch05fb02" class="fb-problem">
<div class="question" id="ch05ques03">
<p>The lawyer wrote an angry _____ to the judge.</p>
</div>
</li>
</ol>



### match list

Exercise requiring reader to match the contents of one list with the corresponding items in another list. Typically presented side-by-side .

#### Content Model

matchlist is an li with the following requirements:

• requires class="matchlist"

#### Content Model

• match-problem is an li inside of an ol class="practicelist".

• match-problem must contain a single div class="question". It may also contain any other element that is valid within an li

• div class="question" must contain two ol class="matchlist" descendants

1. Match the items on the left list with the items on the right list

1. The point that, if won, wins the match for a player

2. The area between the net and the service line

3. Hitting the ball before it bounces

4. Stroke made after the ball has bounced, either forehand or backhand

5. The line that is perpendicular to the net and divides the two service courts

6. The initial part of any swing; the act of bringing the racket back to prepare for the forward swing

7. A ball hit high enough in the air to pass over the head of the net player

8. A ball that is served so well that the opponent fails to touch it with his or her racquet

9. A shot that bounces near the baseline

10. Start of play for a given point

1. ace

2. backswing

3. center service line

4. deep shot

5. forecourt

6. set point

7. lob

8. match point

9. serve

10. volley


<ol class="practicelist">

<li class="match-problem" id="pasdasd7132">
<div class="instructions"><p>Match the items on the left list with the items on the right list</p></div>
<div class="question">

<ol class="matchlist">
<li><p>The point that, if won, wins the match for a player</p></li>
<li><p>The area between the net and the service line</p></li>
<li><p>Hitting the ball before it bounces</p></li>
<li><p> Stroke made after the ball has bounced, either forehand or backhand</p></li>
<li><p>The line that is perpendicular to the net and divides the two service courts</p></li>
<li><p>The initial part of any swing; the act of bringing the racket back to prepare for the forward swing</p></li>
<li><p>A ball hit high enough in the air to pass over the head of the net player</p></li>
<li><p>A ball that is served so well that the opponent fails to touch it with his or her racquet</p></li>
<li><p>A shot that bounces near the baseline</p></li>
<li><p>Start of play for a given point</p></li></ol>

<ol class="matchlist">
<li><p>ace</p></li>
<li><p>backswing</p></li>
<li><p>center service line</p></li>
<li><p>deep shot</p></li>
<li><p>forecourt</p></li>
<li><p>set point</p></li>
<li><p>lob</p></li>
<li><p>match point</p></li>
<li><p>serve</p></li>
<li><p>volley</p></li>

</ol>
</div>
</li>
</ol>



## Embedded

### audio

Usage is same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of audio.

div class="fallback" is required and should include an error message.

#### Use Case


<audio controls="controls">
<source src="audio/04_01.ogg" type="audio/ogg" />
<source src="audio/04_01.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
<div class="fallback">
<p>
Sorry, it appears your system either does not support audio playback or
cannot play the MP3 format or OGG format provided.
</p>
</div>
</audio>



### canvas

Usage is same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of canvas

### iframe

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of iframe

### math

MathML is used for mathematical equations, both in-line and block-level presentation.

#### Content Model

math Follows the HTML5 content model for math with the following requirements:

• the display attribute indicates block or inline (the default) formatting
• the class attribute must be present and set to inline (if display is omitted or set to inline) or block (if display="block")
• the altimg attribute is required and must point to an image fall-back for user agents that do not support embedded MathML
• the altimg-width attribute contains the width in pixels of the altimg. See altimg-height.
• the altimg-height attribute contains the height in pixels of the altimg.
• The altimg-valign attribute specifies the vertical alignment of the image with respect to adjacent inline material. A positive value of altimg-valign shifts the bottom of the image above the current baseline, while a negative value lowers it. The keyword "top" aligns the top of the image with the top of adjacent inline material; "center" aligns the middle of the image to the middle of adjacent material; "bottom" aligns the bottom of the image to the bottom of adjacent material (not necessarily the baseline). This attribute only has effect when display="inline". By default, the bottom of the image aligns to the baseline.
• The alttext provides the textual alternative - should be tagged the same way as the alt attribute on the img element.
• For numbered block equations, wrap mathml in div class="equation". For un-numbered block equations, wrap mathml in div class="informalequation". For inline equations, wrap mathml in span class="inlineequation"

### object

The object element is used to reference external resources such as “widgets/gadgets". This enables authoring tools and browsers to natively display the content if needed (vs. using a div which would require special processing to display the widget). On output the object can be transformed (if needed) to other elements such as a div or iframe for embedded display or a hyperlink to launch in a new window.

See widgets and gadgets in the Baseline Spec for more details.

##### subclasses

<object class="gadget" data="#URI#" type="#Text#" height="" width="#Text#" lang="#Text#" title="#Text#" data-responsivedesigned="#yes/no#" data-minwidth="#Text#" data-minheight="#Text#" data-lmsrequired="#yes/no#" data-offlinesupport="#yes/no#" data-displaytarget="#embed/new_window#" data-icon="#URI#" data-iconwidth="#Text#" data-iconheight="#Text#">  <param name="#CDATA#" value="#CDATA#" />  <span class="fallback" src="#URI#" alt="#Text#" /> </object>



### svg

svg is used for images, both in-line and block-level presentation. SVG graphics are scalable to different display resolutions, so that for example printed output uses the full resolution of the printer and can be displayed at the same size on screens of different resolutions.

#### Content Model

svg is used as a replacement for img so the semantics are identical to img. svg files (.svg file extension) can be referenced by the img src element rather than using embedded svg.

### video

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of video

div class="fallback" is required and should include an error message.


<video controls="controls" poster="images/fraser.jpg">
<source src="../video/fraser_amrev_720480.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
<source src="../video/fraser_amrev_720480.webm" type="video/webm" />
<track src="../video/fraser_amrev_720480.vtt" kind="captions" srclang="en" label="English" />
<div class="fallback">
<p>Sorry, it appears your system  either does not support video
playback or cannot play the  MP4 format or WebM format provided.</p>
</div>
</video>



### details / summary

details is a container for the summary element, which represents the long description of the img.

#### Content Model

details follows the HTML5 spec content model for details, with the following modification:

• requires class="longdesc" or class="longdesc longdesc_alttable"
##### summary

summary is a child of details. It should contain a single label whose value is either:

• "Description"
• "Alternate View"

Use "Description" when details class="longdesc"

Use "Alternate View" for when details class="longdesc longdesc_alttable". The latter is used when the table is rendered as image and summary contains HTML5 table as alternate rendering.

##### Figure with long description

<figure>
<img src="images/001lc001-5D9A3618.jpg" alt="the crab" width="723" height="1101" aria-describedby="fig01-desc" />
<figcaption><div class="caption"><p>The crab is on the beach in a cut scene from
this unreleased ending to a classic movie.</p></div>
<details class="longdesc" id="fig01-desc">
<summary><span class="label">Description</span></summary>
<p>a crab crawling along the sand
</p>
</details>
</figcaption>
</figure>


##### Table as Image with HTML table fallback for accessibility


<figure class="table" id="ch04tab1">
<img alt="" src="images/t0072-01.jpg" width="723" height="1101" aria-describedby="ch04tab1-alt" />
<figcaption>
<details class="longdesc longdesc_alttable" id="ch04tab1-alt">
<summary><span class="label">Alternate View</span></summary>
<table id="ch04untbl01">
<tfoot>
<tr>
<td colspan="6">
<div class="source">
<p><span class="pagebreak" title="73" id="page73" /><span class="label">Source: </span>Monavvarrian, A. 2004. Administrative reform and style of work behavior: Adaptors-innovators, <cite>Public Organization Review: A Global Journal</cite> 2: 141–164.</p>
</div>
</td></tr>
</tfoot>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td colspan="6">The following questions are about your style of work behavior (e.g., decision making) in your organization. Please respond to the question based on your assessment of yourself. Please read all the questions first, and then respond.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</details>
</figcaption>
</figure>



### iframe

Follows the HTML5 content model for iframe.

### img

#### Content Model

img with the following requirements:

• all images requires width and height attributes specified in pixels
• block images must be at most 2000px on the longest dimension
• .jpg, .png and .svg formats are supported.
• if img does not have digital rights, output div class="rights-removal-notice" or span class="rights-removal-notice" instead of img, depending on whether img is block or inline.

#### Classes

##### design-icon

class of img that is decorative-only and intrinsically inline to paragraph. If you need a design icon to be on a line of its own, set it inside a block element that is valid for the content and contains only the icon.

##### inline

class of img that is intrinsically inline to paragraph.

##### glyph

class of img that is intrinsically inline to paragraph. Used for characters that need to be represented as art, not text, but need to scale with text. Height and width will use in-line styles to be expressed as rem units.

If image must be part of narrative flow and contains a caption, see figure class="inline" . If titled, numbered, or captioned image may float, see figure class="figure".

See "Image Conversion Specifications" in the baseline spec for image format and resolution best practices.

##### block-level art

Text preceding the block-level img:

Text following the block-level img


<p>Text preceding the block-level img:</p>
<img alt="" width="375" height="294" src="images/FG02_004_9780132540650.png" />
<p>Text following the block-level img</p>

##### inline

That is, 1 light-year is equivalent to 9.46 trillion kilometers, or almost 10 trillion kilometers. Be sure to note that a light-year is a unit of distance, not time.


<p>
That is, 1 light-year is equivalent to 9.46 trillion kilometers, or almost 10 trillion kilometers. Be sure to note that a light-year is a unit of
<span class="emphasis">distance,</span>
not time.
<img class="inline" src="images/com-03.jpg" width="16" height="16" />
</p>



### rendering-notes

If product has text that describes a particular rendering used throughout (e.g., common nouns are underlined), the paragraph containing that text describing the rendering is wrapped in a div with class="rendering-notes". If the rendering is changed for a product, the product can be searched for rendering-notes that may need to be updated.

#### Content Model

rendering-notes is a class of div.

In the following section common nouns are underlined...


<div class="rendering-notes"><p>In the following section common nouns are underlined...</p></div>

##### Figure containing block level content not available in digital format (rights removal)

<figure id="id" class="figure">
<div class="rights-removal-notice"><p>This asset is intentionally omitted from this text.</p></div>
<div class="source"><p><span class="label">Source: </span><cite>Wall Street Journal</cite></p></div>
</figcaption></figure>


### rights-removal-notice

#### Content Model

class="rights-removal-notice" is a class of both span and div. rights-removal-notice contains the text that should display whenever rights for text or image has been restricted.

##### Inline Image that is not available in digital format (rights removal)
This asset is intentionally omitted from this text.


<span class="rights-removal-notice" data-profile-deliveryformat="digital">This asset is intentionally omitted from this text.</span>

##### Figure containing block level content not available in digital format (rights removal)

<figure id="id" class="figure">
<div class="rights-removal-notice"><p>This asset is intentionally omitted from this text.</p></div>
<div class="source"><p><span class="label">Source: </span><cite>Wall Street Journal</cite></p></div>
</figcaption></figure>


### html

#### Content Model

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec for html. See HTML5 spec definition of html.

### body

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec with the following requirement:

Place one of the following:

• epub:type="frontmatter"
• epub:type="bodymatter"
• epub:type="backmatter"
• epub:type="index"

on body when body contains only one of those content types. If a single body contains content from more than product location (e.g., from both product frontmatter and product bodymatter), place epub:type="frontmatter", epub:type="bodymatter", and/or epub:type="backmatter" on section elements that wrap around the entire grouping of the respective frontmatter, bodymatter, and backmatter contents.

...
...
...

<body epub:type="frontmatter">
<section class="halftitlepage" epub:type="halftitlepage">...</section>
<section class="titlepage" epub:type="titlepage">...</section>
...
</body>



### title

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of title.

For titles of sections, figures, tables, sidebars, etc, see titles.

### base

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of base.

### meta

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of meta

### pre

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of pre

### pre

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of pre

### param

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of param

### noscript

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of noscript

### meter

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of meter

### map

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of map

### source

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of legend

### source

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of source

### summary

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of summary

### track

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of track

### area

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of area

### style

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of style

### pre

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of pre

### pre

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of pre

### param

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of param

### noscript

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of noscript

### meter

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of meter

### map

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of map

### source

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of legend

### source

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of source

### summary

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of summary

### track

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of track

### area

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of area

### ins

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of ins

### del

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of del

### div

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec but requires class attribute. See HTML5 spec definition of div

### progress

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of progress

### script

Usage is the same as HTML5 spec. See HTML5 spec definition of script

### li

li is same as HTML5 spec with the following requirements:

• listitem's cannot contain text directly. text must be wrapped inside p or some appropriate block element
• listitems that appear in ol's with class attributes also require class attributes. listitems may also requires id's if they are cross-referenced.
• assessment
• fb-problem
• match-problem
• multiple-choice-problem
• tf-problem
• general-problem
• various semantic lists
• biblioentry
• index-entry
• objective
• step
• toc li classes
• tocappendix
• tocbibliography
• tocchapter
• tocconclusion
• toccreditset
• tocrearnotes
• tocglossary
• tocintroduction
• tockeywordset
• toclevel1
• toclevel2
• toclevel3
• toclevel4
• toclevel5
• toclevel6
• tocname-index
• tocobjectiveset
• tocpart
• tocpractice
• tocpreface
• tocsidebar
• tocsubject-index
• tocsubject-index
• tocsubject-index

### CSS Notes

Whenever an li wil be numbered using span class="number" rather than autonumbered via the reading system, the CSS must be edited so that the list is not autonumbered.

To help make numbering formatting simpler, the class "nomark" is used to indicate to the CSS that "no mark" (no number, no bullet) should be output.

### fallback

fallback is a span or div nested within object, audio or video elements that holds an error message or alternate content when none of the supplied formats are supported.

See object, audio or video for examples

### Note on epub:types

The following epub:types have not been included in this version of the EDUPUB spec. They will be considered for the next release.

This list contains epub:types that are deprecated per http://www.idpf.org/epub/vocab/structure and are not part of the EDUPUB spec.

### HTML5 elements not included in EDUPUB spec

The following elements have been excluded from this version of the EDUPUB spec. If you feel they should be included, please let us know.

• article
• h2
• h3
• h4
• h5
• h6
• embed
• form and all form elements
• button
• select
• textarea
• input
• label
• keygen
• output
• datalist
• fieldset
• optgroup
• option